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L. R. LIND, PhD. 


C. W. ASLING, M.D., Ph.D. 






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W HEN Dr. L. R. Lind, Dr. H. C. Tracy, and Dr. C. W. Asling first 
came to us in the Department of the History of Medicine at the 
University of Kansas with the proposal to translate Vesalius into English, 
we were happy to be able to put our material at their service. 

After careful discussion, it was generally agreed among us that the most 
practical plan would be to select the Epitome for complete translation. The 
Fabrica * by its bulk alone condemns itself, except for the hardiest and most 
curious scholars. What is true and sound in it has long sinCe been incorpo- 
rated in common anatomical knowledge. 

Most of the mistakes have been discussed and are familiar to all who have 
undertaken more than a superficial review of Vesalius’ place in the progress 
of science. 

What would be useful, we all agreed, would be to place in the hands of 
the modem student a brief summary of what Vesalius said he was trying to 
do, what he found, and what he meant. Vesalius himself did this for us per¬ 
fectly in the Epitome. Here, as Professor Lind says in the introduction, is a 
masterpiece of condensation. Here are the very words of the master himself, 
freed from controversial arguments long since outmoded. Here, indeed, is 
the Epitome of one of the greatest works on science ever to be written, one 
of the foundations of modem civilization. 

The Department of Medical History is very proud to have had the priv¬ 
ilege of sharing in the production of this work. 

Logan Clendening 

Professor of the History of Medicine 

University of Kansas 
November, 1944 

* The Fabrica is now being translated by Professor J. B. deC. M. Saunders and Charles D. 


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T HE year 1943 marked the four-hundredth anniversary of the publica¬ 
tion at the press of Johannes Oporinus in Basel, Switzerland, of both 
the De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem and the Epitome of that work. 
The Epitome, intended by Vesalius as a very brief descriptive anatomy and 
actually a remarkable condensation of the larger book, is here presented for 
the first time in a complete English translation; it has thus far been translated 
into no other modem tongues except German and Dutch. 

The translation was begun at the suggestion of Professor H. C. Tracy, for¬ 
mer head of the Department of Anatomy at the University of Kansas, who 
has served as a genial godfather to the undertaking. Doctor C. W. Asling, for¬ 
merly of the Department of Anatomy, University of Kansas, has contributed 
the anatomical notes. I am greatly indebted to him for his patient and inspir¬ 
ing collaboration. It is a pleasure to acknowledge in this place the importance 
of his influence upon the entire book. His acute scrutiny has removed a num¬ 
ber of errors from the translation; his concise, scholarly notes will make the 
text far more valuable to the medical student and historian than it might other¬ 
wise have been. 

The late Logan Clendening made this translation possible by lending me 
his personal copy of the Epitome (1543); he showed a warm and generous 
interest in the progress of the work and was kind enough to write a Foreword 
for it. I deeply regret that he did not live to see the book in print. It is a great 
pleasure to express my appreciation to Mrs. Logan Clendening, who in pur¬ 
suance of her husband's interest in the history of medicine made the publica¬ 
tion of this book possible. 

Doctor W. W. Francis, librarian of the Osier Library, McGill Univer¬ 
sity, Montreal, Canada, has made several judicious suggestions from which I 
have profited and for which I thank him. I am indebted likewise to the kind¬ 
ness of Dr. Max H. Fisch, professor of philosophy at the University of 



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translator’s preface 

Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, for reading the manuscript and making a number 
of corrections. 

The book has been read also by Professor J. B. deC. M. Saunders, chair' 
man of the Divisions of Anatomy and of Medical History and Bibliography, 
University of California, San Francisco, California, who has helped me 
to avoid certain inaccuracies; for his assistance, so freely given, I am exceed' 
ingly grateful. His deep knowledge of the intricate history of sixteenth cen' 
tury anatomical terminology has been invaluable in setting me aright in 
many instances. Both he and Dr. Asling have persuaded me to use a more 
modem and technical phraseology throughout the translation, one more in 
keeping with the language now in use by the medical profession, rather than 
the somewhat picturesque English which Vesalius' Latin had at first tempted 
me to use. The difficulties involved in translating Vesalius are clearly repre' 
sented by these words of Dr. Saunders in one of his letters to me. It should 
be remembered that they proceed from a scholar whose translations of the 
Fabrica and the Venesection and China Root Epistles of Vesalius are now 
eagerly awaited: 

I have never found Vesalius’s style easy to handle but then neither did his con' 
temporaries. Fabricius regarded it as difficult and Amatus Lusitanus calls it, with 
some justice, harsh. I seldom find a grammatical error but his Ciceronian periodic 
style is at times a trial and can be on occasions very obscure. This is particularly 
the case as he is attempting to use a technical language which is in the state of 
flux. I put in a long apprenticeship in developing a vocabulary of 16 th century terms 
in medicine and have found the comparison of the Latin with the contemporary 
English translation of the works of Ambrose Pare most useful. 

The translation has been completely rewritten in order to avoid the literal' 
ness to which both Dr. Francis and Dr. Fisch had also objected. I wish to 
thank Professor Henry E. Sigerist for his comments on the first sentence of 
Chapter I and for several encouraging letters. 

Through the generous cooperation of Mr. A. Colish, and especially of 
Mr. Henry Schuman, to whom I am obliged for his unfailing concern and 
helpfulness in bringing the book to completion, I have been supplied with a 
photostatic copy of the contemporary (1543) German translation by 
Albanus Torinus, with which I have collated my translation throughout. 

Although I found Torinus sometimes in what I take to be error, his work 

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cleared up several points for me—a fair exchange across four hundred years. 

Dr. John F. Fulton, of the Historical Library, Yale Medical Library, has 
done me a signal honor in sponsoring this book as one of the Monograph 
Series published by the Historical Library. His constant and careful interest 
in the final stages of publication lays me under a debt difficult to repay. 

I wish to thank both Mrs. Alta H. Lonnecker, secretary to the director 
of libraries, and Mrs. David D. Robb, formerly reference librarian, Uni' 
versity of Kansas, for obtaining photostats, microfilm, and interlibrary loan 
books used in making the translation. To my wife, as often before, I am 
grateful for her capable assistance with the typing of the manuscript and 
the reading of the proofs. 

L. R. Lind 

Lawrence, Kansas 
September, 1948 


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T HE echoes of the absurd quarrel between the sciences and the humane 
ties in education still reverberate in certain quarters; but that quarrel 
has never had the slightest justification when the respective claims of each 
are considered from a historical point of view. Although Thomas Henry 
Huxley and Charles W. Eliot, each in his own land, fought hard to bring 
the sciences into the curriculum on a more equal footing with Greek and 
Latin, neither man wished to exclude the classical humanities in turn. They 
knew that in origin both forms of knowledge were embraced in the concep¬ 
tion of the seven liberal arts; and they must have known that, in view of the 
basic unity of all knowledge, to speak of a “College of Liberal Arts and 
Sciences" was a tautological blunder. 

Our age of specialization, with its urgent emphasis upon what is imme¬ 
diate, practical, and expedient, has been tempted in a fury of extremism to 
discard the classical humanities. Furthermore, while they are on the whole 
far more friendly to the Classics than their colleagues in certain other fields, 
some scientists, content to regard a moderate knowledge of French and Ger¬ 
man as exclusively sufficient for the linguistic training of their students, 
ignore the fact that the terminology of their sciences is predominantly 
Greek or Latin or both in its content. But those very scientists would be the 
first to recognize that an adequate understanding of the history of science is 
impossible without either a knowledge of Latin and Greek or the use of 
translations of the great books of any science written before the eighteenth 

The best scientists of the Renaissance since Leonardo present an instruc¬ 
tive contrast in this respect as well as in others to their modem brethren. 


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The former were not content to place limitations upon their own opportuni¬ 
ties for wider knowledge with the simple excuse that there , was not time 
for everything in a “crowded curriculum”; nor did they believe that one or 
two special talents, interests, studies, or languages were enough for their pur¬ 
poses. The scientist of that day was often an artist, a philologist, a philoso¬ 
pher, and a man of letters as well as a scientist. In fact, in Renaissance sci¬ 
ence, so little known to us as yet since many of its chief works, written in 
Latin, remain untranslated, the genuine rebirth of the ideals of classical civi¬ 
lization may be perceived sometimes even more clearly than in the more 
purely literary aspect of Renaissance culture. The Renaissance implies not 
only the rediscovery of Cicero but the revival of the Greek spirit of scientific 
inquiry in Europe. That rebirth of learning is typified in the persons of 
Leonardo da Vinci, Copernicus, Vesalius, and Galileo no less than in those 
of Petrarch and Erasmus; it has required the often neglected but patient and 
persistent efforts of the historian of science in our own day to bring this 
truth home to the modem humanist. These men of the Renaissance were 
profound enough to profit from, wise enough not to reject, and possessed of 
enough genius to build upon, the science, art, and literature of the ancient 
Greeks and Romans. Theirs was that marvelous unity of art, learning, and 
literature which has been lost in the narrow specialization of modem science; 
the bond which linked their common endeavors was a common understand¬ 
ing and respect for the tradition of ancient knowledge. 

The year 1943 was the quadricentennial anniversary of two very im¬ 
portant events in the history of science: the publication by Nikolaus Coper¬ 
nicus of his book On the Motions of the Heavenly Bodies and the publica¬ 
tion by Andreas Vesalius of his work On the Fabric of the Human Body. 
That these two works, so far apart in subject, so close together in method 
and purpose, should have appeared simultaneously is not, perhaps, entirely 
a coincidence. Copernicus laid the foundations of modem astronomy and 
arrived at the true conception of the universe or the macrocosm; Vesalius, 
in his turn, founded modem anatomy upon a true conception of the physi¬ 
cal microcosm, which is man. These ideas—the macrocosm and the micro¬ 
cosm—are among the most widely discussed in Renaissance thought; and 
it is no small part of the greater achievements of these scientists that they 



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brought these ideas at last out of the vague shadow of Platonic and Axis- 
totehan dogmatism into the clear light of scientific reality. The dignity of 
man, that favorite theme of Renaissance philosophers, gained further stature 
from the detailed scientific discoveries of the age. 

Andreas Vesalius of Brussels—anatomist, surgeon, teacher, philologist, 
artist, philosopher, and poet—was a man worthy to be known as “un uomo 
universale,” in the soaring Renaissance meaning of the phrase. His achieve' 
ments have been heralded from his day to ours in the highest terms, although 
his books have been more often praised than read. He is the “founder of 
human anatomy”; he “has left his name on the whole fabric of the human 
body”; he is “the first modem anatomist to place his study on a firm founda' 
tion of observation”; his book (De Humani Corporis Fabrica ) is “not only 
the foundation of modem Medicine as a science but the first positive achieve' 
ment of Science itself in modem times.” Sir William Osier, indeed, regarded 
the Fabrica as the greatest medical book ever written. 

Vesalius was bom of a long line of medical men at Brussels on December 
31, 1514. His family came originally from Wesel in Cleves and preserved 
cm its coat of arms the memory of that town by way of a pun in the shape 
of three weasels; these appear also in the title pages of the Fabrica and the 
Epitome. Vesalius’ father was the personal apothecary of Charles V and fob 
lowed that monarch on the latter’s campaigns until his own death in 1546. 
After a youthful education at Brussels during which, as a sixteenth century 
biographer writes, he dissected mice, moles, dormice, dogs, and cats, Vesalius 
studied first at the University of Louvain and then at Paris from 1533 to the 
autumn of 1536 under Jacobus Sylvius and Johannes Guinterius, both strict 
Galenists in doctrine and method. Leaving a reputation for brilliance behind 
him in Paris, he returned to Louvain in 1536. The next year found him again 
in Brussels, but he soon left for Italy. 

His departure from the North can probably be accounted for by the rela¬ 
tively greater liberality of the intellectual atmosphere in the South. Certainly 
in Padua he found for his pioneering efforts the sort of encouragement which 
was soon to spur him on to the publication of his masterpiece, the Fabrica. 
At Padua he was appointed to the chair of anatomy and surgery in the uni' 
versity, a post he held until 1543. He passed his doctoral examination Decern' 


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ber 6, 1537, and assumed his teaching duties the next day when not yet 
twenty-three years old. At Padua he freed anatomical pedagogy from much 
of its antiquated apparatus by dissecting in person and dispensing with the 
ignorant barber-surgeon and the ostensor, the servant whose duty was to 
point out the parts of the cadaver while the lecturer, at a safe distance, ex¬ 
plained them. In his courses in anatomy he cleared away many of the errors 
of Galenic anatomy. At Padua the greatest period in his productive life 
unfolded; here at the age of twenty-eight he completed the Fabrica, upon 
which he had been working for almost five years. 

After visits to Venice and Ferrara, Vesalius journeyed to Basel, where the 
Fabrica and the Epitome were published by Johannes Oporinus, the famous 
humanist printer. At Basel, while visiting friends and seeing his books 
through the press, he found time to prepare a skeleton which he gave to the 


university; it can be seen there today. In September, 1544, he had married, 
at Brussels, Anna van Hamme, who bore him a daughter also named Anna. 
Vesalius took service as a court physician with Charles V from 1544 until 
he became physician (1556) to Philip II, to whom Charles had turned over 
the throne of Spain. Vesalius remained in Spain until 1564, practicing medi¬ 
cine at court and preparing a work on pathological anatomy which has not 
survived. His stay at the Spanish court is not well described for us in the 
sparse biographical details we have; he seems to have been despondent and 
to have lost interest in his science. In 1561 he wrote his last published book, 
a critique of Fallopius’ Observationes Anatomicae. 

After 1561 we begin to lose sight of Vesalius. His last writing is a diag¬ 
nosis and prescription, one of a number which have been preserved, written 
at Christmas, 1562. In the spring of 1564 he appeared at Venice on his way 
to the Holy Land. Three separate traditions, all untrustworthy, profess to 
give the reasons for this pilgrimage; the only certainties are that he embarked 
upon it and on his return fell ill with plague or fever and died at Zante, in 
Greece, where he was buried by a Venetian goldsmith who had befriended 
him in his last days. Moritz Roth, in his meticulously documented biography, 
the best single book on Vesalius, briefly records the various tales, and their 
sources, concerning the end of his life. Charles Kingsley has summed up the 
matter in a few paragraphs of an essay on Vesalius: 


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After right years of court life, he resolved early in the year 1564 to go on pih 
grimage to Jerusalem. 

The reasons for so strange a determination are wrapped in mystery and contradict 
tion. The common story was that he had opened a corpse to ascertain the cause of 
death, and that, to the horror of the bystanders, the heart was still seen to beat; that 
his enemies accused him to the Inquisition, and that he was condemned to death, a 
sentence which was commuted to that of going on pilgrimage. But here, at the very 
outset, accounts differ. One says that the victim was a nobleman, name not given; 
another that it was a lady's maid, name not given. It is most improbable, if not im' 
possible, that Vesalius, of all men, should have mistaken a living body for a dead 
one; while it is most probable, on the other hand, that his medical enemies would 
gladly raise such a calumny against him, when he was no longer in Spain to con* 
tradict it. Meanwhile Llorente, the historian of the Inquisition, makes no mention 
of Vesalius having been brought before its tribunal, while he does mention Vesalius' 
residence at Madrid. Another story is that he went abroad to escape the bad temper 
of his wife; another that he wanted to enrich himself. Another story—and that not 
an unlikely one—is that he was jealous of the rising reputation of his pupil Fallopius, - 
then professor of anatomy at Venice. This distinguished surgeon, as I said before, 
had written a book, in which he had added to Vesalius’ discoveries, and corrected cer* 
tain errors of his. Vesalius had answered him hastily and angrily, quoting his anatomy 
from memory; for, as he himself complained, he could not in Spain obtain a subject 
for dissection; not even, he said, a single skull. He had sent his book to Venice to 
be published, and he had heard, seemingly, nothing of it. He may have felt that he 
was falling behind in the race of science, and that it was impossible for him to carry 
on his studies in Madrid; and so, angry with his own laziness and luxury, he may have 
felt the old sacred fire flash up in him, and have determined to go to Italy and become 
a student and a worker once more. 

This is not the proper place in which to give more than a brief summary 
of the achievements of Vesalius, nor will medical readers need to be reminded 
of their importance. Roth's treatment of this subject is practically exhaustive. 
The writings of Vesalius, from the early revision of Rhazes to the examina* 
tion of Fallopius, are characterized by a rigorous subjection of all medical 
and anatomical investigation to the evidence of observation, not to the 
authority of books or predecessors. The establishment of human anatomy 
upon a scientific basis is only one of his contributions to knowledge; he 
wrote also, as almost the first, upon pathological and comparative anatomy 
and on anthropology. Anatomical instruction was completely revolutionized 
by Vesalius; and his use of careful illustrations is a feature in it which mod' 
em teaching owes largely to him. The numerous discoveries he made in the 
"fabric” (or "working”: the word has functional implications as well) of 



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the human body are not distinguished as are those of other anatomists by the 
attachment of his name to any specific part of the body; but his revision of 
anatomy included more than two hundred corrections of Galen, as he states 
in the preface to the Fabrica. 

The artistic activity of Vesalius is illustrated by the Tabulae Anatomicae 
of 1538, designed by hims elf, as were the illustrations of the Fabrica and 
Epitome, but executed by his countryman, Jan Stephan van Calcar. The Ulus' 
trations of his books reveal a Renaissance feeling for symbolism carried out 
in the smallest details. The Classical influence appears in the cupids of the 
wood block—illustrated initials of the chapters, the children of the Asdepiad 
physicians of whom he speaks in his prefaces. The plates showing the external 
parts of the human body follow closely the classical statues of the Venus de' 
Medici and the Antinovis. The frontispiece common to both Fabrica and 
Epitome represents a public anatomy conducted by Vesalius. Such public 
dissections were often gala affairs in the Renaissance, crowded with curious 
spectators and sometimes attended by the great. Certainly Vesalius seems to 
have been in his element performing before an admiring audience. 

The philosophic bent of Vesalius was chiefly Platonic as is demonstrated 
by frequent references to Plato and by an unusual passage of Platonic doc- 
trine in the Fabrica VII, 6, at the end of his description of the human brain. 
His pedagogical genius is apparent on every page of his books: the clear 
organization of material; the style of direct address to the student; the explic¬ 
it, patient, and concise description—all indicate the gifts of a great teacher. 
The philological scholarship of Vesalius was exercised throughout his work¬ 
ing life by his acute criticisms of ancient and contemporary anatomical doc¬ 
trine, by his revision of Rhazes, and by his critical editorial work upon the 
Giunta edition of Galen, where the phrase in the heading of one of the pieces 
he revised— aliquot in locis recognitus —gives only a faint idea of the true 
magnitude of his contribution. His efforts in poetry may be gauged by the 
epigram “Ad Candidum Lectorem” in the Epistola of 1539 (Venesection 
Epistle), a competent but not inspired piece of humanist verse. His distich 
on the number of bones in the human body was plagiarized by several people 
and finally interpolated as verses 1627 and 1628 into the text of the famous 


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medical poem, the Schola Salemitana (Regimen Sanitatis Salemitanum); 
see De Renzi, Collectio Salemitana V (Naples, 1859), 45: 

Adde quater denis bis centum senaque, habebis 
quam sis multiplied conditus osse, semel. 

His motto, which appears beneath the 1542 portrait, was borrowed from the 
prose of Celsus: Ocyus, iucunde et tuto. 

The personality of Vesalius himself remains, in spite of much self'revela¬ 
tion in his writings and biographical material of another nature, still largely 
an enigma. His far-ranging and penetrating intellect, his marvelous skill in 
controversy, his excellent Latin style, resemble those of Erasmus; indeed, 
Olschki calls him “the Erasmus of medicine.” The customary and conven¬ 
tional flattery of his dedicatory prefaces does not conceal the real independ¬ 
ence of Vesalius; he is one of the men whom the Renaissance princes 
delighted to honor for their genius and sought to attach to their courts: but 
he was never their vassal. 

Anatomy, like astronomy, was a study always a bit suspected among 
churchmen. The procurement of cadavers was often a perilous business. 
Galen was the anatomical authority accepted by the Church. Yet Vesalius 
revolutionized anatomy, dissected cadavers without subterfuge or reti¬ 
cence in his public demonstrations, stole the bodies when necessary, and 
showed beyond a doubt that Galen knew anatomy only from the dis¬ 
section of apes, dogs, and pigs—and did not thoroughly understand even 
the anatomy of these animals. The Church, nevertheless, did not lay 
hands upon Vesalius. Galileo and Servetus suffered under the Inqui¬ 
sition, but not Vesalius. 

His portrait reveals an imperious, passionately energetic and self-willed 
character, confident, scornful, utterly fearless. The dark eyes, the short curly 
hair and beard, are physical features which recall other Renaissance portraits, 
but none perhaps is represented in so arresting an attitude as Vesalius, both 
in a large woodcut at the end of the text of the Epitome and in the frontis¬ 
piece of the Fabrica and Epitome. Here, in probably the only authentic ones 
of the twelve different portraits which are preserved, Vesalius is shown as 
he demonstrates his art upon a cadaver identical with Figure 24 of the 


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Fabrica V. All the pride of his accomplishment, the self-assurance of his 
swiftly won knowledge, stand forth. The motley, eager crowd; the classic 
dissecting theater; the naked man whom he employed when pointing out the 
external parts of the body; lastly, the skeleton in the center with all its grim 
significance—these details are symbolic of his profession and reminders to 
his reader of the scenes amid which he achieved such signal success in the 
study of the human body. To this success, modem science owes the very 
foundation upon which it has erected the theory and practice of present-day 


T HE Epitome, completed two weeks after the Fabrica on August 13, 
1542, was published in June, 1543, and was followed two months later 
by the German translation of Albanus Torinus. The Latin Epitome which I 
have used consists of fourteen folio pages measuring twenty-one by sixteen 
inches. It contains eleven plates made from wood blocks, showing the bones, 
muscles, external parts, nerves, veins, and arteries; some portions of the 
plates were intended to be cut out and attached to their proper places upon 
the drawings of the body or skeleton. These plates show the human figure 
about 42.5 centimeters in height, thus revealing a proportion of one-fourth 
natural size if we reckon the average height of men as 165 to 175 centi¬ 
meters. They were very probably executed by Jan Stephan van Calcar, 
possibly assisted, as in the pictures for the Fabrica, by some unknown artist 
and closely supervised throughout by Vesalius himself. Van Calcar com¬ 
pleted the early Tabulae Anatomicae Sex of 1538, printed in Venice; but no 
artist is mentioned specifically by name by Vesalius in reference to the 
Fabrica and the Epitome. 

In an age inspired in much of its art by the conception of death, when 
Holbein's great pictures of the dead and dying reflect the desolation and 
misery of plagues and massacres, it was only to be expected that Vesalius 


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should present his anatomical figures in the gloomy attitudes of death. One 
skeleton figure leans like a Roman genius mortis upon a pedestal which bears 
upon it a pair of funereal verses from Silius Italicus (P unica XII, 243-44): 

Solvitur omne decus leto, niveosque per artus 
it Stygius color, et formae populatur honores. 

The same plate in the Fabrica carries the sentiment, “Vivitur ingenio, caetera 
mortis erunt,” instead. This figure “is said to have inspired Shakespeare’s 
concept of Hamlet” (A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 1941, p. 423). 
Although I have found no real evidence for this statement by Castiglioni, 
English literature plays a small part in the dissemination of Vesalian anatomy 
through Nicholas Udall, the author of “Ralph Roister Doister.” 

To the plagiarism in London of the Vesalian plates by Thomas Geminus 
(Compendiosa Totius Anatomie Delineatio, etc., English ed., 1553; 2d ed., 
1559) an English text was provided, drawn not from Vesalius’ Latin Epit' 
ome but from a text s imil ar to that used by Thomas Vicary in his Anatomie 
of the Body of Man (1548). Udall seems to have done nothing more for this 
plagiarism by Geminus than to translate the characterum indices of die 
Vesalian plates and to re-arrange Vicary’s text skillfully to conform with 
the anatomical teaching of Mundinus; he also added a preface. (See Sanford 
V. Larkey, “The Vesalian Compendium of Geminus and Nicholas Udall’s 
Translation: their Relation to Vesalius, Caius, Vicary and de Mondeville”: 
Transactions of the Bibliographical Society, XIII [London, 1933], 367-94; 
also, H. Cushing, A BioSibliography of Andreas Vesalius, 1943, p. 127. 
Larkey also explains why Udall in the English Geminus abandoned the order 
of presentation of material in the Epitome; see below.) 

The Epitome is, like the Fabrica, at once a descriptive anatomy and an 
anatomical atlas. Vesalius speaks of it most diffidently as an appendix, index, 
compendium, and pathway (semita) to the Fabrica. Clearly Vesalius wished 
to reach as wide a public as possible by means of the Latin and German texts 
of his manual, with the hope of forestalling as well as he could the plagiarists 
whom he knew were inevitable. The latter paid him their sincere compli¬ 
ments by pirating his books in England, France, and Germany. 

The order in which the material is arranged in the Epitome differs from 

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that of the Fabrica. This is apparent from the contents of each book as given 



Book I Bones and Cartilages 

I The Skeleton 

II Muscles and Ligaments 

II Muscles 

III Abdominal Viscera 

III Vascular System 

IV Thoracic Viscera and 

IV Nervous System 

Vascular System 

V The Brain and the 

V Abdominal Viscera and 

Nervous System 

Organs of Reproduction 

VI Organs of Reproduction 

VI Thoracic Viscera 

VII The Brain 

The style of the Epitome is clear and brief. There is no evidence in it that 
Vesalius wrote bad Latin. Indeed, his style is among the best Latin styles 
written by the Renaissance thinkers; even the Fabrica, which involves an 
immensely greater amount of detail and is often couched in a conversational 
Latin natural between teacher and student, still preserves many classical 
features of Latin prose: the verb at the end of the sentence, the separation 
of subject and modifier by various forms of the verb, the careful arrangement 
of clauses, the use of the genitive, the clausula at the sentence-end. His 
choice of words is quite classical; yet, realizing the great necessity for sys¬ 
tematizing the terminology of science (almost as bewildering in its present 
form as it was in his day), he constantly admits new words and phrases. The 
Epistola of 1539 shows a brilliance of epigrams, anecdotes, analogies, and 
descriptions which is not surpassed even by the books of his more mature 

The Epitome is a triumph of condensation. Anyone who has examined 
the vast bulk of the Fabrica knows what an immense amount of detail has, 
in the Epitome, been reduced to the lowest possible limits. Written in lan¬ 
guage which does not merely repeat that of the Fabrica, the Epitome is a 
book in its own right, independent in treatment, point of view, and purpose. 
The book embodies the principles of his educational method in a more strik¬ 
ing fashion than does the Fabrica. Not the least important of his teaching 


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devices is shown in the plate which calls for the clipping out of certain 
anatomical features and their superimposition by pasting upon the larger 
figure of the human body. 

The tone of the Epitome is sober and impartial; Vesalius never mentions 
his contemporaries by name and scarcely refers even to Galen, except in 
the dedicatory epistle. “Professors of dissection” is a term he uses when 
necessary; the comments in the context where those words appear are 
usually Vesalius’ own views upon controversial points and, by a charac' 
teristic ironical implication, he manages to give the impression that the “pro / 
fessors” are wrong. Naturally the students for whom the Epitome was in' 
tended would not be interested in scholarly controversy; hence Vesalius 
does not indulge in it. His purpose was pedagogical; the Epitome was a 
guide, a brief manual, an index, as he called it, to the parts of the body; and, 
master that he was, he never departs for a moment from that purpose. Seh 
dom has so large an amount of scientific knowledge been so skillfully com' 
pressed into the narrow limits of a few pages. 

The monumental BioSibliography of Andreas Vesalius, the result of 
more than forty years of devoted study by Harvey Cushing (New York: 
Schuman's, 1943), is the great mine of information to which all readers of 
this first complete published translation into English of any of the longer 
works of Vesalius must now be referred for additional facts about the edi' 
tions and plates of his books as well as for certain biographical material. The 
bibliography there provided is exhaustive, elaborately detailed, and sumptu' 
ously printed. In this brief introduction I have intended to convey merely 
the chief facts about Vesalius and the Epitome. The very short bibliography 
immediately following contains a selection of the more important works on 
Vesalius and his writings from which the student of Renaissance medical 
history and the general reader would be most likely to profit. 

The reader's attention is called to the list of marginal notes by Vesalius 
given at the end of the text of this translation. This is a series of Greek 
equivalents for the Latin terms used by Vesalius in his text; he did not, as 
will be seen, make it either exhaustive or carry it out through the six books 
with the same consistency. These Greek terms, occurring as they do with 
great frequency in modem anatomical terminology, will help the reader to 


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find his way more easily and provide additional synonyms for the Latin and 
English terms. 

Dr. Asling’s general interpretations for each book together furnish a 
convenient orientation for understanding the anatomical principles discussed 
in the Epitome. They sum up briefly and competently the substance of each 
book and are particularly recommended to the reader of this translation. 
Both the general interpretations and serial notes often serve as a condensed 
paraphrase of the text such as was provided by Albanus Torinus in his 
German translation of the Epitome. (See Henry E. Sigerist, “Albanus 
Torinus and the German Edition of the Epitome of Vesalius”; Bulletin of 
the History of Medicine, XIV [1943], 652'66.) Albanus, faced by the lack 
of equivalent German scientific terms, was forced to coin words and to 
resort to paraphrase. Modem English possesses most of the required terms 
for reproducing the Latin of Vesalius. I have not often therefore resorted 
to paraphrase in translating the Epitome but have attempted to say as clearly 
and briefly as possible in English what Vesalius said so well in Latin. 

L. R. Lind 


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Paraphrasis in nonum librum Rhazae medici Arabis clariss. ad regem 
Almansorem de singularum corporis partium affectuum curatione, autore 
Andrea Wesalio Bruxellensi medicinae candidato. Lovanii ex officina 
Rutgeri Rescii. Mense Februar. 1537. 

Ibid., Basdeae in officina Roberta Winter. Anno 1537. Mense Martio. 

[Tabulae anatomicae.] Imprimebat Venetiis B. Vitabs Venetus sumptibus 
Joannis Stephani Calcarensis. Prostrant vero in officina D. Bemardi. 
Anno 1538. 

Institutionum anatomicarum secundum Galeni sententiam ad candidates 
medicinae Libri quatuor, per Joannem Guinterium Andemacum medi' 
cum. Ab Andrea Wesalio Bruxellensi, auctiores et emendatiores redditi. 
Venetiis in officina D. Bemardini. 1538. 

Andreae Wesalii Bruxellensis, scholae medicorum Patavinae professoris 
pubbci, Epistola, docens venam axillarem dextri cubiti in dolore laterab 
secandam: et melancholicum succum ex venae portae ramis ad sedem 
pertinentibus, purgari. Basileae, in officina Roberti Winter. Mense Aprib. 
Anno 1539. 

Galeni omnia opera nunc primum in unum corpus redacta. Apud haeredes 
Lucaeantonij Juntae Florentini Venetus. 1541. Vol. II: 

Galeni de nervorum dissectione bber ab Antonio Fortolo Joseriensi lati' 
nitate donates, et ab Andrea Wesalio Bruxellensi abquot in lods recog' 

Galeni de venarum arteriarumque dissectione bber ab A. F. Joseriensi 
latinitate donates, et ab Andrea Wesalio Bruxellensi plerisque in lods 


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Galeni de anatomicis administrationibus libri novem ab Joanne Andemaco 
latinitate donati, et nuper ab Andrea Wesalio Bruxellensi correcti, ac 
pene alii facti. 

Andreae Vesalii BruxeUensis, schoke medicorum Patavinae professoris, de 
humani corporis fabrica Libri septem. Basileae, ex officina Joannis Oporini. 
Anno salutis reparatae 1543. Mense Junio. 

Andreae Vesalii BruxeUensis, invictissimi Caroli V. Imperatoris medici, 
de Humani corporis fabrica Libri septem. Basileae, ex officina Joannis 
Oporini, Anno salutis per Christum partae 1555. Mense Augusto. 

Andreae Vesalii BruxeUensis, scholae medicorum, Patavinae professoris, 
suorum de humani corporis fabrica librorum Epitome. Basileae, ex officina 
Joannis Oporini. Anno 1543. Mense Junio. 

Von des menschen corpers Anatomey, ein kurtzer, aber vast niitzer 
ausszug, auss D. Andree Vesalii von Brussel Biicheren, von ihm selbs 
in Latein beschriben, unnd durch D. Albanum Torinum verdolmetscht. 
Gedruckt zii Basel, bey Johann Herpst, genant Oporino, unnd voUendet 
am neiinten tag des Augstmonat, nach der geburt Christi imm 1543 Jar. 

Andreae Vesalii BruxeUensis, medici Caesarei epistola, rationem modumque 
propinandi radicis Chynae decocti, quo nuper invictissimus Carolus V. 
Imperator usus est, pertractans: et praeter alia quaedam, epistolae cuius- 
dam ad Jacobum Sylvium sententiam recensens, veritatis ac potissimum 
humanae fabricae studiosis perutilem: quum qui hactenus in iUa nimium 
Galeno creditum sit, facile commonstret. Basileae, ex officina Joannis 
Oporini, anno salutis humanae 1546. Mense octobri. 

Andreae Vesalii, anatomicarum Gabrielis FaUoppii observationum Examen. 
Venetiis, apud Franciscum de Francisds, Senensem. 1564. 

CoUected Works: 

Andreae Vesalii Invictissimi Caroli V. Imperatoris Medici Opera omnia 
Anatomica et Chirurgica cura Hermanni Boerhaave. . . . et Bernhard! 
Siegfried Albini. Lugduni Batavorum, apud Joannem du Vivie, et Joan, 
et Herm. Verbeek, 1725. 2 vols. 

Andreae Vesalii BruxeUensis leones anatomicae. Ediderunt Academia 


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Medicinae Nova-Eboracensis et Bibliotheca Universitatis Monacensis, 
1934. (Series of plates from original woodcuts of Fabrica and Epitome.) 


Ball, J. M., Andreas Vesalius, the Reformer of Anatomy. St. Louis: Medical 
Science Press, 1910. 

Boyden, E. A., “The Problem of the Double Ductus Choledochus,” etc. [a 
translation of gall-bladder description from the Fabrica'}, A not. Rec., LV 
(1932), 74. 

Burggraeve, A., Etudes sur Andre Vesale, precedees d’une notice historique 
sur sa vie et ses ecrits. Gand, Belgium: C. Annoot-Braeckman, 1841. 

Castiglioni, A., A History of Medicine. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 
1941, pp. 76, 418-27, 431, 444, 490. 

Choulant, L., History and Bibliography of Anatomic Illustration; tr. with 
preface by M. Frank. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1920. 

Clendening, Logan, Source Book of Medical History. New York: Paul B. 
Hoeber, Inc., 1941, pp. 126-51. Contains translation of the preface to the 
Fabrica; also a translation of “On Dissection of the Living,” Fabrica, 
Book VII, xix. 

Cushing, Harvey, A Bio-Bibliography of Andreas Vesalius. New York: 
Henry Schuman, 1943. 

Feyfer, F. M. G. de, “Die Schriften des Andreas Vesalius.” Janus, XIX 
(1914), 435-507. 

Fisch, Max H., “Vesalius in English State Papers.” Bull. Med. Libr. Ass., 
XXXIII (1945), 231-53. 

Foster, Sir M., Lectures on the History of Physiology. Cambridge: The 
University Press, 1901. 

Kingsley, Charles, “Vesalius, the Anatomist.” In his: Health and Educa¬ 
tion. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1893, pp. 385-411. 


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Lambert, S. W., and Goodwin, G. M. Medical Leaders from Hippocrates 
to Osier. Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill Co., 1929. 

Morley, Henry, “Anatomy in Long Clothes.” Frasers Magazine, Nov., 1853. 

Olschki, Leonardo, Geschichte der neusprachlichen wissenschaftlichen 
Literatur I (Leipzig, 1919), 265, 284; II (Leipzig, 1922), 16, 24, 34 ff., 
39, 81 ff., 95, 98 ff., 178, 330. 

Roth, Moritz, Andreas Vesalius Bruxellensis. Berlin: Georg Reimer, 1892. 

Saunders, J. B. deC. M., and O’Malley, C. D., The Bloodletting Letter of 
1539. In: Studies and Essays in the History of Science and Learning 
offered to George Sarton, ed. by M. F. Ashley Montagu. New York: 
Henry Schuman, 1946, pp. 5-74. 

-, “A Reading from the De Humani Corporis Fabrica of Andreas 

Vesalius.” J. A mer. Coll. Dentists, X (1944), pp. 211-18. 

-, “Bernardino Montana de Monserrate, Author of the First Anat¬ 
omy in the Spanish Language; Its Relationship to De Mondeville, Vicary, 
Vesalius, the English Geminus, and the History of the Circulation.” 
J. Hist. Med. Allied Sci., I (1946), 87-107. 

Singer, Charles, The Evolution of Anatomy. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, 
Trubner & Co., 1925, pp. 111-35. 

Spielmann, M. H., The Iconography of Andreas Vesalius. London: John 
Bale, Sons and Danielsson, Ltd., 1925. 


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T HE compendium of the books on the fabric of the human body which 
I now publish is divided into two sections, of which the first is com' 
prised of six chapters embracing a most succinct description of all the parts; 
the second section displays their delineation in a number of plates ac¬ 
companied by indices of the characters by which they are designated. There¬ 
fore, it is a matter of your own choice and dependent upon your desire 
whether you shall first approach my ordering of the material (which from 

various considerations of printing and drawing I have selected as the most 
suitable) from the description of the parts, or their designation and index 
of their distinctive features starting with the figures showing the nude forms 
of man and woman, where the names of their external portions, serving as 
an index to these figures, occur. 

The figure printed on the recto of the leaf with the nude male figure 
offers the complete structure of the bones, f whereas the figures drawn 
to the same scale as the nude man and labeled as muscle tables show the 
bones also in the order in which they are reached in dissection, especially 
the fourth and fifth muscle figures.^ 

The delineation of the muscles and ligaments is to be sought first from 
that figure which we place opposite the one showing all the bones, and it 
is therefore called the first muscle figure. Next in order comes that which 
is called the third, then the fourth and fifth.§ The organs by which 

* From the frontispiece of the Epitome. An English translation appears also in H. Cushing, 
A BiO'Bibliography of Andreas Vesalius, New York: Schumanns (1943), pp. 110'11, where an 
attempt has been made to indicate by symbols the exact references to the plates. Vesalius is not 
entirely clear in his suggestions for the use of the plates; an error, moreover, exists in the serial 
enumeration, thus making the task of comparing the text with the plates more difficult. On this 
entire matter see W. G. Spencer, ‘The ‘Epitome’ of Vesalius on vellum in the British Museum 
Library”; Essays on the History of Medicine presented to Karl Sudhoff, etc., edited by Charles 
Singer and Henry E. Sigerist, Zurich, Seldwyla (1924), pp. 237*44. 

f That is, the skeletal figure, while it shows all the bones, is drawn to a smaller scale since it was 
taken from the Fabrica. where the plates are smaller. 

$The plates are not numbered; if they were, these would be two and one respectively, not 
four and five. 

S For the reason why Vesalius here skips the second muscle figure, see W. G. Spencer, op. cit. t 
especially Larkey, op. cit. 


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nutrition with food and drink is maintained, then the heart and the parts 
subserving its functions, together with the nervous system, are shown in 
figures on the plates following that of the nude woman. Therein are also 
to be seen the female organs of generation, and likewise the male organs 
occur in a picture to be cut out and pasted to the fifth muscle figure. 

As for the portrayal of those parts which are contained in the skull, what 
is not carried by the plate prepared for demonstrating the nerves is presented 
in sufficient fullness in the plates showing the muscles. These should be 
taken in the following order: the head of the first figure, then of the second, 
then of the fourth, together with the images which the hands of that figure 
hold; next, that image which appears in the left hand of the fifth figure and 
the other image lying on the ground beyond the picture of the parts of the 
eye. Farewell, and use these, my efforts, as frankly as they are offered. 


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W ITHIN the slender compass of these pages, greatest prince Philip, 
adorned with the splendor of your immortal name and under its 
good auspices, there is sent forth unto the common use of learning the de' 
scription of the human body, which I have so divided in the manner of an 
enumeration, and singly related, that the principal branch of natural phi' 
losophy, treating the finished product of a creation most perfected and nigh 
the most worthy of all, may in the manner of an image be set before the 
eyes of those studious of the works of Nature. This has been done with as 
much conciseness as possible, and with less labor it describes those matters 
which I have embraced more amply in my seven books upon the subject. 
To those books this Epitome is, as it were, a footpath, or, as it will also be 
rightly considered, an appendix, gathering into summary form the chapters 
which are set forth with detail in those books; it lays out everything in such 
a fashion I may prophesy that you, with the amazing liberality of culture 
in which you eagerly welcome whatsoever slightest offering of the writer’s 
craft, will not utterly cast it from your sight. Moreover, as you are now 
entering upon a period in your life distinguished by such various virtues, 
you are held fast by a wondrous and most generous love of all art and learn' 
ing. And when your spacious spirit shall one day rule the whole world, you 
may perhaps at times consider it pleasant to be acquainted with my work 


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and to regard it as a situation wretched and unworthy of the greatest Em" 
perors, Kings, and Consuls, that in the pursuit of studies so varied, die har" 
mony of the human body which we shall publish to the world should lie 
constandy concealed; that man be completely unknown to himself; and that 
the structure of instruments so divinely created by the Great Artificer of 
all things should remain unexamined: since it is by the function of these 
instruments that those things we look upon as most, and almost solely, im* 
portant are brought to pass. 

Truly, although for this reason my undertaking will perhaps be not wholly 
displeasing to your admirable judgment, if I should nevertheless refuse to 
give forth this companion to physicians because, while I strive to be useful 
to them yet at the same time I am anxious to snatch opportunity from the 
hands of certain rascally printers who may later seize in possession upon 
the labors of another to reduce them inepdy into small space and publish 
them under their own names (creatures bom for the destruction of letters!), 
I might in either case prove a grievous hindrance. For no one is ignorant 
how much is lost in all sciences by the use of compendiums. Though indeed 
they seem to provide a certain way and systematic approach to the perfect 
and complete knowledge of things and seem to contain in short and in sum 
that which is set down elsewhere with more space and prolixity and are for 
this reason considered in the light of an index or the very abode of mem" 
ory, in which matters written down at length are fitly reduced to their proper 
place, nevertheless, compendiums do signal injury and wreak a great havoc 
upon literature; for, given to the use of compendiums alone, we read scarcely 
anything else through to the end these days. This is true even for those who 
have delivered themselves completely to learning, to this degree aspiring 
only to the shadow and superstructure of science, digging little or not at 
all beneath the surface. 

However, although this evil wanders widely amid almost all studies, it is 
a charge to be laid most gravely at the door of the mob of physicians that 
they perform their duty so carelessly in distinguishing the parts of the human 
body that not even enumeration is made use of in learning them. For when, 
beyond the function and use of each part, its location, form, size, color, the 
nature of its substance, the principle of its connection with the other parts, 


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and many things of this sort in the medical examination of the parts may 
never be sufficiently perceived, how many can be found who know even 
the number of the bones, cartilages, ligaments, muscles, and veins, arteries, 
and nerves running in a numerous succession throughout die entire body 
and of the viscera which are found in the cavities of the body? I pass over 
in silence those pestilent doctors who encompass the destruction of the com' 
mon life of mankind, who never even stood by at a dissection: whereas in 
the knowledge of the body no one could produce anything of value who did 
not perform dissections with his own hands as the kings of Egypt were wont 
to do and in like manner busied himself frequently and sedulously with dis' 
sections and with simple medicines. Whence also those most prudent mem' 
bers of the household of Asdepius will never be sufficiently praised, who, 
as children in the home learn reading and writing, so they exercised the dis' 
section of cadavers and, learned in this wise, under the happy auspices of 
the Muses, they bent to their studies. Furthermore, whatever our sloth in 
the thorough mastery of Anatomy as the basis and foundation of the medical 
art, I have assumed that no demonstration is required of how necessary the 
knowledge of human parts is for us who have enlisted under the banner of 
medicine, since the conscience of each and all will bear full testimony to 
the fact that in the cure of illness the knowledge of those parts lays rightful 
claim to first, second, and third place; and this knowledge is to be sought 
primarily from the affected portion, without, of course, neglecting the due 
application of subsidiary remedies. Indeed, those who are now dedicated to 
the ancient study of medicine, almost restored to its pristine splendor in many 
schools, are beginning to learn to their satisfaction how little and how feebly 
men have labored in the field of Anatomy to this day from the times of Galen, 
who, although easily chief of the masters, nevertheless did not dissect the 
human body; and the fact is now evident that he described (not to say im' 
posed upon us) the fabric of the ape’s body, although the latter differs from 
the former in many respects. 

But as to my own audacity, by virtue of which this slight offering, un' 
worthy of your majesty and uniquely commended by such a patronage, 
hazards the dubious fortune of critical judgment, I shall defend myself with 
no excuse except that this is the grain and salt whereby I am permitted to 


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obtain favorable omens for my systematic studies; and meanwhile I should 
wish this book to be an indication of my complete obedience and sense of 
duty toward my country's ruler until such time as it shall be possible to 
offer incense also. 

At Padua, on the Ides of August , in the Tear of the Virgin Birth, 

M DXLII. [August 13, 1542] 


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ALL of the parts of the human body are either similar, or simple to the 
XJL senses,* such as the bones, cartilages, ligaments, fibers, membranes, 
flesh, and fat, or dissimilar, instrumental agencies, such as the veins, arteries, 
nerves, muscles, individual fingers, and the remaining organs of the entire 
body. These latter parts are made all the more instrumental to the degree 
that they (e.g., the hand and head) are composed of many similar parts 
and also of many functional mechanisms [ 1 ]. 

The bones are the hardest and driest parts of the entire body. The carti' 
lages are softer than the bones, but of the parts of the body they are next 
in hardness to the bones. The whole body is supported by bones and carti' 

* I am indebted to the kindness of Professor Henty E. Sigerist, former director of the 
Institute of the History of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, for the following answer to 
my question about this passage: “I think that sensu ue refers to the senses of the anatomist, 
that is to say, these parts are simple as judged by the senses; the anatomist cannot perceive any 
simpler parts composing them. For this interpretation we have a good parallel in Galen, ed. 
Kiinn, Vol. 4, p. 741: eCt| fiv o&v d^Corr) xaxacrxei ri) xov aotyiaxog, iv fj xd fyunojxeQfj 
Jtdvxa (xaXeixai V oCxcog 6rjXov6xi xd xobq, alofb)cnv djtXa) xfiy obcetav xpaaiv. 

Vesalius' ’sensu ue simplices’ stands for x <?6g alodTjaiv djtXa, which expression the Latin 
translator of the Galenic text renders by: ‘sensu simplices.* I should therefore be inclined to 
translate the beginning of the sentence: ‘All parts of the human body are either similar or simple 
to the senses as bone, cartilage. . . . 

Professor Sigerist quotes both the Latin text and the translation of this passage into German 
by Albanus Torinus in his article “Albanus Torinus and the ‘Epitome’ of Vesalius,” Bulletin 
of the History of Medicine XIV (1943), 663*64, and comments on the virtues of each passage. 

Professor oaunders writes me as follows: “The classification of the parts of the body into 
’similars and dissimilars’ was standard terminology almost to the time of Bichat. The terms 
are of course derived from Galen. What is meant is parts of similar temperaments and elements. 
This passage is typical of one of the difficulties of the modem translator when dealing with 
the humoral doctrine; the very terms have disappeared from our language with the development 
of newer anatomical and physiological concepts even in everyday language. Contemporary sixteenth 
century English is as above: ‘similars and dissimilars.’ Cf. animal, spiritual, natural—all terms 
with special meaning differing from that of customary Greco*Latin usage. The same difficulty 
as above is presented with ‘functional.’ ‘Instrumentum’ is not quite ‘functional.’ The term is 
derived from Aristotle, De Gen. Animal. I, ii, 716a: * . . . the bodily parts are the instruments 
or organs to serve the faculties. . . . ’ According to Galen, Method, Medendi I, vi, instru* 
ments are those parts of the body capable of carrying out a complete action; hence the arteries, 
veins, and nerves are collectively instruments for the distribution of the vital, natural, and 
animal spirits; the eye, and all pertaining to it, the instrument of sight. This was the customary 
usage of the Fabrica. 


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lages in combination, and all its parts are attached to, and stabilized by, 
them. The skull, which contains the brain and the sense organs, is composed 
of several bones; one bone frequently makes up the forehead, especially in 
women [2]; in the occiput of the head there is likewise one; two bones are 
at the vertex, and one at each ear or temple [3], in which a cavity is formed 
suitable for the reception of the organ of hearing. This cavity encloses two 
small bones, one of which resembles an anvil or molar tooth, while the other 
is like a small hammer [4]. The bone of the temple has connected to it the 
cartilage supporting the structure of the ear. In addition it has three proc* 
esses: first, it bears the mastoid process posteriorly; second, the styloid 
process, like a bodkin or cock’s spur; third, a process which turns anteriorly, 
is closely joined in the external structure of the orbit to the bone of the 
upper jaw, and at the level of this junction constitutes the part of the skull 
which we call the os jugale [5]. Inferiorly the temporal bone joins the base 
of the occipital bone to form that region of the skull which we may compare 
to a broken rock, not only from the standpoint of hardness but also in 
appearance [6]. In the base of the skull is a noteworthy bone which profes* 
sors of dissection compare to a wedge [7]; it is polymorphous and gives 
forth projections very much like the wings of a bat [8]. Near it, above-the 
nose, there is another bone which is pervious in form like a sieve or more 
like a sponge [9]; it forms the septum of the nose, and in company with 
the seven bones previously listed it makes up the cavity which contains the 

In the upper jaw we count twelve bones in addition to the teeth: one on 
the lateral and two on the medial aspect of each eye socket [10], and one 
pair in the inferior part of the orbits; these last bones are regarded as by far 
the largest of the group [11] and contain small cavities for the reception 
of the upper teeth. A pair of bones is found at that end of the palate at 
which the apertures of the nasal cavities become continuous with the 
pharynx [12]. Finally, the prominent part of the nose is composed of two 
bones which connect with the cartilages of the nose by which the wings of 
the nostrils are supported; like the other bones of the upper jaw, they have 
no special name [13]. 

Thus far most of the bones mentioned are held in place by sutures, of 


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which the one passing transversely in the sinciput [ 14] is called the coronal; 
the one creeping transversely in the occiput receives its name from its 
resemblance to the Greek letter A [15]; and the one passing along the 
length of the skull from the top of the occiput to the middle of the coronal 
suture is called the sagittal. Those bony junctions which are equidistant 
from the sagittal suture and which pass superior to the ears do not look like 
sutures but are more like two overlapping scales, from which appearance 
they are called squamous conglutinations [16]. The remaining connections 
between the bones of the skull do not show the appearance of a suture as 
well as do the three which have been named; in fact, in some places they 
appear more like a simple line and should receive the name of “harmony” 
rather than that of “suture” [17]. 

The lower jaw consists of a single bone, with the exception of very young 
children, in whom it forms from two bones fusing at the point of the chin; 
indeed, most of the bones of children are composed of several bones which 
later unite into single bones in those who have reached their full growth 
[18]. The lower jaw articulates on either side with a bone located near the 
ear, and in addition with its special cartilage intervening here, where the 
heads of these bones and their corresponding sinuses fit together [19], 
the articular surface is covered in the manner of a rind and a joint is thereby 
provided that turns readily, rendering it free from the injuries of continuous 
friction of the bones against each other. There are at most sixteen teeth in 
each jaw: four incisors, two canines, and ten molars; not only do they 
differ in appearance when examined in place in the mouth, but they are 
also fixed in their sockets with differing numbers of roots. 

In the pharynx, the bone at the root of the tongue has more the shape 
of the Greek letter u than of A [20]; it is bound together with many small 
bones. The lower of these are joined at their extremities to the rough artery 
of the head [21] (which we call the larynx rather than the gullet or throat) 
and, more specifically, to a cartilage which resembles a shield. This cartilage 
is called the first cartilage of the larynx and can be palpated in its entirety 
[22]. The second cartilage makes up the greater part of the posterior portion 
of the larynx and resembles the ring which the Thracians fit on their right 
thumbs when shooting arrows [23]; it lacks a name and from this fact 


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actually receives one [24]. The third cartilage, which is made up of two 
parts, resembles the orifice of vessels used for pouring water in washing the 
hands [25]; it forms an opening in the middle of the larynx for structures 
like the reeds of a flute [tibia] or pipe [fistula] [26]. This opening is like 
the aperture of pipes which are held to the mouth, and because of this we 
call it the “little reed” [27]. On these cartilages an operculum is laid like 
a lid, composed of cartilage [28], fat, and ligamentlike structures. The 
remaining cartilages of the rough artery, making up both its trunk and the 
branches running to the lungs, present the semicircular shape of the letter 
C or the Greek sigma [29]. 

The backbone, which provides the best passage for the dorsal medulla 
[30], is like a keel of the body and is divided into the regions of the neck 
or cervix, the thorax, the loins, the sacrum, and the coccyx or cuculus [31]. 
It is composed of thirty-four bones, which we call vertebrae. The neck has 
seven bones, furnished with several processes (not all bones having the 
same number); by means of the first of these bones [32] (which, unique 
among the vertebrae, has no spine and has quite protuberant transverse 
processes) we move the head directly forward and backward. By the use 
of the second vertebra (to which a prominent process resembling a canine 
tooth is attached) we turn the head [33]. By the function of the remaining 
vertebrae the head is carried to the side but only in a slight degree. 

The thorax has twelve vertebrae, with which the ribs articulate. Usually 
the lowest of these vertebrae [34] is supported by the adjacent vertebrae 
through its ascending and descending transverse processes (with which the 
vertebrae are articulated in turn in addition to the connections between 
their bodies) just as the first cervical vertebra supports the bones contiguous 
to it above and below. The remaining vertebrae of the backbone above the 
twelfth thoracic are supported from above and in turn support those below, 
while those below this level are supported below and support those above 
them. Below the twelfth vertebra are five vertebrae of the loins, followed 
by the os sacrum, formed, at most, from its own six bones firmly fused 
together. The coccyx is a bone the extremity of which terminates in carti¬ 
lage; it is frequently composed of four meager ossicles which provide po 
foramina for nerves and have no path for the dorsal medulla. 


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Furnishing a suitable location for the heart and the organs subsidiary 
to the heart, the breastbone occupies the anterior region of the thorax. It 
is composed very rarely of seven bones [35], usually fewer, receiving the 
seven articulations of the ribs on either side. Of the twelve ribs on each side 
ending in cartilage, the seven upper ones attach to the breastbone by their 
own cartilages and therefore have been given the name of true or genuine 
ribs. The ribs which do not come in contact with the breastbone, but fall 
short of it and of the anterior region of the abdomen in a degree correspond' 
ing to the lower position which they occupy, are called false ribs [36]. The 
lower portion of the breastbone terminates in cartilage and resembles the 
blunt point of a sword (because of which the entire breastbone is compared 
to a sword) [37]. At the upper extremity of the bone, where it is broadest 
and strongest [38] and where the throat lies, a clavicle is attached on each 
side, holding the shoulder joint away from the thorax. 

The scapula has the form of a triangle and occupies the posterior region 
of the thorax on either side; it ends in a neck in which a socket is molded 
[39], suitable for the reception of the head of the humerus. From its own 
back the scapula sends out a process projecting above the shoulder joint and 
called the summus humerus [40]. It is articulated through a special carti' 
lage of the clavicle (as is also the case with the connection between the 
clavicle and the breastbone); by means of the clavicle the shoulder joint 
is held away from the thorax. The inner process of the scapula is compared 
to an anchor, or the letter C, or the Greek sigma [41]. 

The bone of the arm, or humerus, articulates with the scapula; inferiorly 
it is furnished with several sinuses and tuberosities [42]. Two bones are 
joined here, the radius and the ulna (the other name of which is cubitus, 
from the name of the entire member). The cubitus is flexed and extended 
on the humerus in a fashion similar in both man and quadrupeds. In its 
upper portion, in the posterior aspect of the arm joint, it has a process which 
many call the gibber [43]. Similarly, its lower portion has another process 
which takes its name from the shape of a stylus. 

The wrist articulates almost exclusively with the radius and is separated 
from the ulna by its own cartilage [44]; it is made up of eight bones which 
are entirely different from each other in shape and size. The four bones of 


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the postbrachial metacarpals, together with the first bone of the thumb, 
join the wrist at its lower aspect. The thumb, as well as the other four fingers, 
is composed of three bones placed serially, as it were, in a line [45]. The 
total number of bones of the fingers is fifteen; to this we add the two small 
bones comparable to sesame seed [46] which are found at the second inter' 
node of the thumb. Bones which are similar , but much smaller and quite 
cartilaginous, are found in the inner portion of the first four intemodes of 
the fingers and in the third intemode of the thumb; one connected near the 
wrist to the external side of the metacarpal bone which supports the little 
finger is found by those who dissect the body. There is rarely one in the 
remaining intemodes of the fingers, except that such may be observed in 
the fingers of very old men [47]. 

A large bone is attached on each side of the os sacrum; where this bone 
is broad and faces the flanks, it is called the ilium, but where the head of 
the femur enters a deeper socket, it is called the hipbone. That aspect of the 
bone which, with the bone of the opposite side, forms the pubis (which has 
a conspicuous perforation) is called the pubic bone. Henceforth, however, 
under the name of coxendix we include the entire bone [48]. 

The rounded head of the superior aspect of the femur is continuous with 
the broad neck; it grows inward in an oblique direction and articulates 
with the coxendix. At its inferior end, the femur enters the sinuses [hollows] 
of the tibia by means of its own two heads [condyles], with a certain sinus 
lying between them where a tuberosity of the aforementioned tibia is 
received, as well as by means of the special cartilages in this joint, which is 
very similar to the knee of quadrupeds and of birds [49]. A large process 
is seen near the external part of the neck of the femur, called the rump or 
the great pulley [rotator] [50]. Inwardly, the bone has also another process, 
much smaller than the one on the external aspect; because of this fact we 
call it the minor or internal rotator. 

In the leg, just as in the forearm, two bones are seen; the inner of these 
is much thicker than the outer one and goes by the name of the entire 
member [51]. The outer bone, which is not articulated to the femur, is 
called the fibula. A round bone called the mola or patella, similar to a shield, 
is located in front of the joint of the tibia with the femur. The lowest 


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portions of the tibia and fibula, which have prominences on their outer 
aspects protruding from the fleshy parts, are called the malleoli. 

The talus lies in the same region in man and in beasts and is put to the 
same use in both creatures. Under it lies the os calcis [52], extending 
posteriorly far beyond the straightness of the tibia. The anterior part of the 
talus ends in a round head; it enters the sinus of the navicular bone, which 
is joined to three bones of the tarsus [53]. The fourth, an external bone of 
the tarsus, resembles a cube or a die and adjoins the heel. Five metatarsal 
bones [ossa pedii] [54] are joined with the four bones of the tarsus; by 
means of these five the toes are supported. 

The great toe is formed from two intemodes [55], while three are assigned 
to each of the remaining toes. Moreover, there are the same number of 
these bones in the foot (which is much shorter in man than in quadrupeds) 
and in the hand. Small bones occur, which we compare to sesame seed [56]; 
the two which lie beneath the first intemode of the great toe are far larger 
than in the hand. Of these, the inner may be the one which followers of 
occult philosophy affirm to be subject to no sort of corruption; foolishly 
they contend that it must be long preserved in the earth until, in the manner 
of a seed, it produces a man at the time of resurrection [57]. To the bones 
of the digits, in the foot as well as in the hand, nails are attached; we refer 
to them here not inopportunely on account of their substance, just as among 
the parts bracing something we mention the cartilages of the eyelids, sup* 
porting the lids so that they may not fall together flacddly. 


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M UCH has been written about the splendid title pages of Vesalius’ Fabrica and 
Epitome. Some see them as representing symbolically the divisions of Vesalian 
anatomical teaching into three phases: the skeleton, in its central position of domi¬ 
nance, represents the foundation of most anatomy teaching, osteology; the cadaver, 
the dissecting-room; the nude living figure, surface and regional anatomy. Whatever 
the intent of the author may have been in designing this plate, we may see some 
traces of the organization in the text of the Epitome. The first chapter concerns the 
skeletal parts, the succeeding five chapters describe structures disclosed by dissection, 
and the book closes with a section on topographical and surface anatomy. The modern 
encyclopedias of anatomy follow almost exactly, chapter for chapter, the order in 
which Vesalius describes the systems of the body. 

Another influence which may be observed in the organization of this book is that 
of Mondino de’ Luzzi, whose Anathomia of 1316 starts with parts associated with 
digestion, the natural members; following this come the contents of the thorax, or 
spiritual members, and then the nervous system, the animal members . This order is 
exactly that of the Epitome's Chapters III, IV, and V, and the general interpretations 
of these chapters will show the relationship to the three “spirits,” which may be com¬ 
pared with the system of “members” of Mondino. 

Immediately on beginning the reading of the Epitome, the question arises: for 
whom was this text intended? According to Vesalius, in his dedicatory introduction, 
it is a compendium of anatomy for physicians and may be treated as an index to the 
Fabrica. Singer, in The Evolution of Anatomy , believes that it was “intended for 
those who were not students of medicine” (p. 123). However, the first thing which 
arouses the curiosity of the reader is Vesalius’ restraint in naming the parts described. 
Except for those structures the names of which are in common, even household, use, 
almost no names are given directly. Instead, the derivation of the anatomical, name 
is often given by the device of descriptive comparison. In illustration, the “second 
cartilage” of the larynx “resembles the ring which the Thracians fit on their right 
thumb when shooting arrows” in spite of the fact that the term “cricoid” was already 
available (Gr., xptxog, "a ring”). 

In this connection, a communication from Professor J. B. deC. M. Saunders of San 
Francisco informs me that in his experience with the Fabrica he has found the Onomas' 
ticon of Julius Pollux of great value in dealing with nomenclature. Singer (op. cit., 
p. 107) says that this work, while written in the time of Galen, first became influential 
after its publication in 1502. Its section on anatomical terms became the storehouse 
from which the Humanists replaced the current Arabic terms. For example, “cricoid” 
was thus introduced. 

The conclusion seems tenable that in the Epitome Vesalius has employed this pic¬ 
turesque device in the introduction of new terms much in the way that modern 
teachers do. We feel often that teaching is made more vital and the student’s interest 
and retention of fact increased if we explain, as far as possible, the derivation of the 


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term; we mourn the lack of training in the classical languages (both in teacher and in 
student) which prevents this from reaching its maximum utility. According to such 
an interpretation, the Epitome was written not for barber'surgeons and bonesetters, 
for whom sheer rote memorization of names and methods would serve, but instead for 
the medical student, for whom the greatest effort in offering a basic understanding of 
fact pays manifold dividends in the form of a welbtrained physician. 

Another teaching method introduced in the first chapter is enumeration of parts. 
Vesalius feels strongly that this is of value in anatomy teaching, as shown by the third 
paragraph of his dedication. It reaches its highest and most complex form in the sec* 
ond chapter on muscles; an attempt has been made to preserve its full force in the 
annotation. The method has been dropped, almost completely, in anatomy (an out' 
standing exception is the enumeration of twelve cranial nerves) but is in use in 
pathology teaching, where the student learns the four cardinal signs of inflammation, 
the five diseases which show leukopenia, the five types of cirrhosis of the liver, and 
other similar enumerations. 

In connection with Vesalius’ methods of teaching, it would be gross negligence to 
omit his manikin plates in the Epitome. We can imagine the great pride he took in 
this “first instance in which the type of demonstration by moveable layers is adopted” 
(Singer, op. at., p. 126). While the vascular system rather than the skeleton is the 
basis for this pair of male and female manikins, much care has been taken in designing 
the various portions of the plates so that they may be cut out and superimposed. The 
instructions on how to assemble them are written in great detail. Singer s comment 
that “It is not a useful method, and has since fallen into desuetude save for popular 
purposes” may be modified on the basis of the recent appearance of three volumes 
of this type, the first a detailed study of the body and the other two a series of 
anatomical transparencies of the eye and the ear. The use of transparent mediums 
in these demonstrations may yet bring about the reintroduction into anatomical teach'* 
ing of a method invented by Vesalius. 


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1 THE first few lines contain an idea which is now commonplace in elementary 
♦ anatomy, viz.: organs are composed of tissues. Probably it was the first great 
generalization in the analysis and synthesis of the main anatomical facts. 

2. Frontal bone. Vesalius appears to expect metopism (persistence of the metopic 
suture) but finds many skulls, especially female, which do not show it. Metopism is 
actually the exception, and significant sex differences are not now claimed for it. 

3. Parietal and temporal bones. 

4. Vesalius recognized the existence of the third auditory ossicle, the stapes, in his 
letter to Fallopius some twenty years later. 

5. The zygomatic processes of the temporal and maxillary bones, yoked together by 
the zygomatic bone. 

6. The petrous portion of the temporal bone, with special reference to the appearance 
of its inferior aspect. 

7. The sphenoid bone, wedge-shaped or irregular in form (aqxrjv, “a wedge"). 

8. Compare the ancient name of this bone: sphecoid (from mprji, "a wasp"). 

9. The ethmoid bone, lamina cribrosa and lamina perpendicularis. The comparison 
to a sponge refers to the ethmoid air cells. See Chap. V, note 18. 

10. "Upper jaw" here is the topographic equivalent of face, exclusive of mandible. 
The bones indicated are, laterally, the malar or zygomatic bone, and medially, the 
lacrimals and laminae papyraceae of the ethmoids. 

11. Maxilla, with the alveoli. 

12. Palatine bone. 

13. Nasal bones. 

14. Sinciput: semi + caput, the opposite of occiput; forehead or calvaria. 

15. Lambdoid suture. 

16. The squamous part of the temporal bone: squamosae conglutinationes . The term 
refers to a union of thin scalelike bones. See Morris' Human Anatomy (10th ed., 
1942), p. 268. 

17. Harmony: smooth union along a nearly straight line. This concept has continued 
to be the same to the present time. It reflects the Greek concept of fitness in joining 
or fastening, as in carpentry or masonry (and in anatomy), by mere apposition. Morris, 
loc. rit.: "In harmonic suture, the even, regular edges of the apposing bones. . . . " 

18. Separate centers of ossification in the mandible and other bones; Vesalius' experi¬ 
ence was not limited to the dissection of the adult body. 

19. Mandibular fossa of the temporal bone and condyloid process of the mandible. 

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Sinuses here mean hollows, articular fossae. The word has long had many meanings 
in anatomy. 

20. The hyoid bone; more curved than sharp at the convergence of its cornua. 
Vesalius would correct the old name of “lambdoid bone.” 

21. Trachea or windpipe; the idea is a derivative of the concept of arteries as air 
passages. “Rough” (Latin, aspera) is descriptive of the cartilaginous rings. 

22. Thyroid cartilage (dups6g, “a shield”). 

23. Cricoid cartilage (xplxog, “a ring”). 

24. Old name, cartilago innominate (Fr., cartilage anonyme ). 

25. Arytenoid cartilages; arytaena, “ladle-shaped.” 

26. Comiculate cartilages and vocal folds (or cords). The diminutive of cornu, “little 
horn”; compare this with other terms applied, such as tibia, “flute,” and fistula, 
“pipe.” Both of these last appear to have been lost; they are not found in Motherby 
(A y^cw Medical Dictionary, 2d ed., London, 1785), though they may be found as 
synonyms in Dunglison (A Dictionary of Medical Science, rev. ed., 1874). 

27. Glottis or lingula: the mouthpiece of a pipe. 

28. The epiglottis. 

29. I.e., the uncial capital sigma. 

30. Medulla, marrow, representing the concept that the white, fatty material filling 
bone cavities is comparable to that found in the cavity of the vertebral column. 

31. From its fancied resemblance to the bill of a cuckoo (cuculus, x6xxv|). 

32. The atlas. 

33. The epistropheus (axis), with the odontoid process (dens); odontoid means tooth¬ 

34. Vesalius is here referring to the transitional vertebrae of the thorax. His qualifica¬ 
tion of “usually” indicates his full realization that this may be either the eleventh or 
twelfth thoracic vertebra. The remainder of the paragraph is doubtless a description 
of the differing inclinations of the various articular processes, but here, as all too 
frequently in the Epitome, the clarity of his concepts has been lost in overcondensa¬ 

35. The sternum is “composed very rarely of seven bones”; a concession to Galen, 
who so described its composition. 

36. I.e., the lower the rib, the shorter it is, and hence the less it extends toward the 

37. Xiphoid process. Gladiolus (“little sword”) was the old name for sternum. Enai- 
form process carries the same meaning. 

38. Manubrium, the “handle” of the sword. 

39. The glenoid cavity. 



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40. Summus humerus: the acromion process. According to Professor Saunders, Galen 
described a third bone in the shoulder, the summus humerus, which Vesalius con- 
eluded was the acromion. There was a long dispute on this subject, and some concluded 
that the summus humerus was the cartilage of the acromioclavicular joint. 

41. Coracoid process; other names indicative of its shape which have been in use are 
uncinate, comiculate, anchoralis, rostriformis, ancyro’ides. Cf. Vesalius, Fabrica I, 
xxi, on Galen’s use of the term. 

42. Including (as sinuses, see note 19) the coronoid, radial, and olecranon fossae, and 
(as tuberosities) the epicondyles, trochlea, and capitulum. 

43. The olecranon process. 

44. The articular disk. 

45. On comparative anatomical and ossification bases, Vesalius holds the view, more 
recently advanced (and criticized), that the thumb has no metacarpal but is like the 
fingers in having three phalanges. Hence, the “four bones of the postbrachial’’ equal 
our second through fifth metacarpals. 

46. Sesamoid bones. Nodes are joints; hence intemodes correspond to phalanges. 

47. Can Vesalius have referred here to the finding in arthritis (and especially ascribed 
to gout) of Heberden’s nodes? The reason for the unusually large number of “sesamoid 
bones” found in connection with the other digits is not evident; there may be some 
confusion with epiphyseal ossification centers. 

48. The limits of the three bones described here do not exactly correspond to those 
at present specified for the os coxae, but the principle of fusion of three bones is 
clearly defined. The “perforation” is the obturator foramen. 

49. The description of this hinge joint is always one of the most difficult to accomplish 
with clarity because of its complexity; Vesalius is describing the method by which 
the two condyles and intercondylar fossa of the femur fit on the condyles and 
intercondylar eminence of the tibia, with the interposition of the cartilaginous menisci. 

50. Greater trochanter (old name, glutus, “rump”); followed by lesser trochanter. 

51. “Tibia” is not only a specific term for a single bone but also a generality for the 
leg region. This is explained also in the topographic or surface anatomy section at 
the end. The principle holds for several parts of the body, and the differentiation of 
bone or region is usually made from the presence or absence of the word os. 

52. Calcaneum, which extends posteriorly beyond the perpendicular line formed by 
the posterior aspect of the tibia. 

53. In the anatomy of the period, the tarsus is not so extensive as in modern termi¬ 
nology; it is limited to the navicular, the three cuneiforms, and the cuboid and 
excludes the calcaneum and talus. 

54. Ossa pedii does not refer to all of the bones of the foot since the term is strictly 
limited to the metatarsal bones, in the same way that the “bones of the postbrachial” 
are always to be rendered as metacarpal bones in translation. 


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55. Note that he does not attempt to homologize the thumb and the great toe in 
particular, with respect to number of bones forming these digits (see note 45). 

56. See note 46. The sesame seed was often symbolic in medieval metaphysics not 
only of minuteness but also of fertility and hence immortality. On this last meaning 
depends his next statement. 

57. Surely Vesalius contributes here his own sardonic joke; he comments on the old 
superstition of the incorruptible bone, upon the foundation of which the whole 
body will be recreated on Resurrection Day. His training in philosophy must have 
been such that he would have appreciated the reference Butler made later to the os 
sacrum (holy bone, Vesalius’ “meagre ossicle” of the coccyx) in his satirical poem: 

The learned Rabbins of the Jews 
Write there’s a bone, which they call luez, 

I’ the rump of man, of such a virtue. 

No force in nature can do hurt to. . . . 

—Samuel Butler, Hudibras , Part III, Canto II 

Vesalius’s transference of the property of indestructibility to an insignificant bone 
lying in a tendon under the big toe would have been adequate comment to answer 
(by anticipation) the questions of contemporary metaphysicists regarding his findings 
on incorruptible bones. The corresponding passage from the Fabrica will be found 
in translation in Clendening’s Source Boo\ of Medical History , p. 150. See Richard 
Burton’s translation of The Thousand and One Rights (notes on the 449th night) 
and Dr. Nash’s notes on Hudibras for interesting additional reading on this subject 

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T HE ligaments, no less than the sinews of the muscles and the organs by 
means of which the animal spirit is led from the brain, are commonly 
called nerves [ 1 ]. They are made of similar particles, originating from bone and 
cartilage [2], almost entirely devoid of sensation, hard (but nevertheless softer 
than the cartilage), and white; they serve various purposes in the fabric of man 
in binding together, containing, covering, and forming the muscles. For the 
muscle is regarded as the instrument of voluntary motion, formed of fibers in' 
terwoven with flesh and with many membranes having the nature of a liga' 
ment [3]. In order that the muscle may contract and lead the part that is to be 
moved [4], it requires the assistance of the nerves which carry the animal force 
from the brain no less than it requires the sense organs. Similarly, in order 
that the rest of the parts which require nutrients may be nourished, it is irri' 
gated by veins and arteries. Further, the tendon of the muscle is a certain 
type of sinew and is, as it were, composed of fibers except for the interven¬ 
ing flesh. The tendon is distinct from the muscle only at the point where it 
reaches a position far enough from its origin (which it takes from a bone, 
cartilage, or some membrane) toward the insertion (which the tendon makes 
on the part that is to be moved) that its fibers attain continuous traction 
through the whole muscle; this is obtained by virtue of its interconnection 
with the proximal fleshy portion of the muscle. In proportion to their length, 
muscles end in tendons now round, now broad and membranous, now 
shorter, now longer; the short muscles spread out in a continuous expansion 
and terminate in no sinew worthy of mention. 

A membrane augmented with fleshy fibers lies under the skin of the 


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forehead. The skin is the natural outer covering of the body and sends out 
a thin little skin growing upon its own surface, like an efflorescence of the 
true skin itself [5}. Inwardly, throughout the entire body, a certain mem' 
brane lies under the skin; because it is increased with fleshy fibers (as here 
in the forehead), it has been thought to be called cameous elsewhere [6}. 
The largest part of a man's fat is placed between this membrane and the 
skin [7]. Also, the upper eyelid is moved by means of the membrane just 
mentioned, for in that place where this [camea] reaches the inner region 
of the eye socket, it raises the eyelid [8]; where it is augmented at the 
external aspect of the eye by fleshy fibers drawn into the image of our letter 
C, it is the originator of the downward motion of the eyelid [9]. 

Seven muscles move the eye [ 10]: the first leads to the side inward, the 
second outward, the third upward, the fourth downward; the fifth and 
sixth are somewhat curved around the eye and render moderate assistance 
to the function of the first and second muscles. These six correspond to each 
other in form, being elongated and almost round; they spring forth from 
the tough membrane which surrounds the nerve of vision [11]. They pass 
by membranous tendons to the anterior portion of the scleral tunic of the 
eye in a ring near the border of the iris. The seventh muscle is covered by 
these and surrounds the visual nerve along with the six muscles at the same 
time [12]. The cameous muscle is implanted in the posterior portion of the 
scleral tunic of the eye; it is chief among those six muscles, making almost 
the same motions as they do. 

A muscle draws one ala of the nose upward and outward, arising from 
the inner aspect of the cheekbone and inserting at one side into the ala, on 
the other into the upper lip where the latter lies below the ala of the nose 
[13]. A membranous muscle draws the alae together inwardly, lurking in 
die broad part of the nostrils beneath the tunic which girdles them from 
below [14]. 

Four muscles on either side move the cheeks and lips [15]. The first is 
composed of fleshy membrane reinforced for the most part with cameous 
fibers in the anterior portion of the neck and face as far as the cheeks; it 
resembles a muscle. The second arises from the cheeks and is implanted in 
the upper lip. The third extends from the lower jaw to the lower lip. The 


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fourth, somewhat different, lies in that part of the cheeks which we puff 
out. To these muscles there approaches a portion of that muscle which, as 
we learned, moves the outer ala of the nose; this, together with those 
mentioned, produces those marvelous and varied movements of the cheeks 
and lips. 

There are also four muscles on either side which move the lower jaw 
[16]. The first is the temporal, arising from the bone of the vertex and 
also of the forehead, as well as from the bone shaped like a wedge; it is 
broad and flat at its origin from the bones of the temple and inserts in an 
acute process of the lower jaw. The second is called mansorius [17], from 
chewing [<x mandendo ]; it proceeds from that part of the skull called the 
os jugale and is inserted in the external aspect of the jaw. The third comes 
from the processes of the skull which have the shape of wings; it is im' 
planted in the internal aspect of the jaw; it raises the jaw, together with 
the muscles named, and moves the jaw laterally and forward and backward. 
The fourth, with its companion, depresses the jaw; It takes its origin from 
the process of the skull which resembles a stylus and inserts at the apex 
of the chin; it is furnished with two bellies for itself. 

The hyoid bone [18] is drawn straight downward by two muscles, close 
to each other and arising from the top of the chest bone. Two others, coming 
from the lower jaw, draw this bone upward. At the sides it is drawn up* 
ward by one muscle on either side, originating from the styloid process of 
the skull. Having origin from the upper border of the scapula, one muscle 
at each side moves it downward. All eight of the above muscles are inserted 
in the anterior portion of the hyoid bone. 

A fleshy mass, coming from the middle of the bone just mentioned, is 
inserted in the root of the tongue [19]; this mass can be regarded as two 
muscles and moves the tongue straight inward and downward. From the 
sides of the hyoid bone one muscle is also inserted into the root of the tongue 
inwardly but nevertheless moving the tongue more to the side. The fifth 
and sixth muscles of the tongue come from the styloid processes of the skull 
on either side; they are implanted in the root of the tongue and move it 
upward or, as the one or the other is contracted, to either side. The seventh 
and eighth muscles originate from the sides of the lower jaw near the root of 


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the molar teeth on either side. They are inserted along the length of the tongue 
on the lower side and move downward and laterally that part of the 
tongue which is conspicuous in the gaping mouth before dissection. The 
ninth muscle arises from the inner aspect of the lower jaw near the tip of 
the chin; it is thick and has a few furrows or wrinkles. It is inserted in the 
lower part of the tongue and moves the tongue outward; its body as seen 
before dissection is interlaced with fibers of such a sort that by the great 
workings of Nature the tongue is very readily carried in every direction 
of movement [20]. 

Four muscles contracting the little crevice of the larynx join the first cartilage 
of the larynx to the second. Four muscles opening this crevice bind the third 
cartilage to the second. Two closing the little crevice connect the third cartilage 
to the first. Two others set in the base of the third cartilage contract the crevice 
tightly. These twelve muscles are said to belong to the larynx [21]. Two 
additional ones proceed together from the hyoid bone and insert into the 
first cartilage; they elevate it in front and also retract the crevice of the 
larynx [22]. Two muscles arising from the breastbone extend to the same 
cartilage [23]. Then two arising in turn from the posterior region of the 
esophagus (completely fleshy, as are almost all of the laryngeal muscles) 
are also inserted into the sides of that cartilage [24], together with the two 
already mentioned as contracting the larynx. Two others extend from the 
hyoid bone and insert into the root of the epiglottis; they pull the latter 
up and forward [25]. 

In the group of muscles which move the head are also those which move 
the first cervical vertebra separately [26]. There are seven pairs of them 
in all, because the same number, of course, is reckoned on each side. The 
first pair passes from the spines of the upper five thoracic vertebrae; ascend' 
ing gradually in an oblique direction outward, they are implanted on the 
occipital bone. The second pair, apparently formed not of two but of a number 
of muscles, is relatively different; a special portion of it arises from the trans' 
verse processes of the four upper thoracic and five lower cervical vertebrae 
and, passing inward somewhat obliquely, inserts on the occipital bone. The 
third pair arises from the spine of the second cervical vertebra and, creep' 
ing outward somewhat obliquely, also inserts on the occipital bone. The 


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fourth pair, likewise inserted on the occipital bone, passes from the first 
vertebra at the place which, in other vertebrae, ends in a spine. The fifth 
pair is carried somewhat transversely from the middle of the occipital bone 
to the lateral processes of the first vertebra. The sixth pair extends from the 
spine of the second vertebra to the same processes; like the five pairs just 
mentioned, it is located in the posterior region of the neck; like the third, 
fourth, and fifth pairs, it is composed of muscles which are completely 
fleshy, round, and slender. The seventh pair is more noteworthy; from the 
top of the breastbone where the clavicles articulate, two muscles (one on 
each side) have their origin and, borne obliquely upward, they extend to 
an insertion on the mastoid process of the head. When the first four pairs 
are tensed at the same time, the head is moved back; when the muscles of 
the first three pairs are tensed from the opposite side they assist in turning 
the head, and in that movement the fifth and sixth pair turn the first cervical 
vertebra and the head circularly. The function of the seventh pair of muscles, 
operating together, is to direct the head straight forward, but when they 
work alternately, they turn the head around. The muscles of the neck 
subserve the motion of the head to the extent that the latter is turned with 
the neck secondarily and is led laterally toward the shoulders [27]. 

Among the eight pairs of muscles which move the back, these muscles 
are to be classed [28]. The first pair, beginning from the sides of the fifth 
thoracic vertebra, extends to the first cervical vertebra below the esophagus 
and flexes the upper part of the back. The second extends on either side 
from the first rib of the thorax and inserts on the inner portion of the trans¬ 
verse processes of the cervical vertebrae; it turns the neck to the side but 
rather more in front. The third, taking its origin from the transverse proc¬ 
esses of the upper six thoracic vertebrae, is implanted in the external region 
of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae; it leads the neck back¬ 
ward, inclining the neck to the side. The fourth pair extends from the spine 
of the seventh thoracic vertebra to the second cervical vertebra, inserting 
into all intervening vertebrae, as does the first pair, and originating from 
them also; it extends the upper part of the back. The fifth pair has a muscle 
on either side from the iliac bone to the transverse processes of the lumbar 
vertebrae and inserts on the lowest rib of the thorax; it flexes the lower part 


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of die back. The sixth, arising in the back from the lowest aspect of the os 
sacrum, extends to the neck; it inserts on the transverse processes of the 
lumbar vertebrae and even more distinctly on those of the thorax. When both 
muscles of this pair contract, the back is extended; when only one of the 
pair is in action (as among the other pairs also), this provides an oblique 
movement or toward the sides. The seventh, hidden beneath the sixth, 
originates from the posterior aspect of the os sacrum; attached to all the 
intermediate spines, it ascends as far as the spine of the eleventh thoracic 
vertebra and, by successively drawing the spines together, it extends the 
back in this region. The eighth pair, extending from the eleventh thoracic 
vertebra to the seventh cervical vertebra, is completely joined to the inter' 
vening spines in the same fashion as is the seventh. 

One muscle moves the scapula to the chest [29]; it arises from the second, 
third, fourth, and fifth ribs of the thorax before their cartilaginous termina' 
don and is inserted in triangular fashion on the inner process of the scapula. 
A second muscle of those which move the scapula arises from the occiput 
and, following along the length of the neck to the spine of die eighth thoracic 
vertebra, originates from the apexes of the vertebral spines as well; it inserts 
on the spine of the scapula, the acromion, and a portion of the clavicle. All 
of that part of it lying in the neck pulls the scapula upward; that part below 
the neck in the posterior portion of die thorax and which resembles a monk's 
hood, draws the scapula downward. The third springs from the transverse 
processes of the upper cervical vertebrae; this muscle inserts into the upper 
angle of the base of the scapula and lifts it upward. The fourth arises from 
the spines of the fifth, sixth, and seventh cervical vertebrae and especially 
from the spines of the first three thoracic vertebrae; this muscle inserts at 
the base of the scapula and draws it somewhat backward. 

The first author of the movements of the arm [30] arises from the middle 
region of the clavicle nearest the breastbone and from the breastbone; 
narrowed into somewhat of an angle, it draws the arm to the chest. The 
second muscle, originating from the other part of the clavicle, the point of 
the shoulder, and from the spine of the scapula, is inserted transversely by 
its apex into the humerus; beautifully covering the shoulder joint, it lifts 
the arm upward in various directions. Its shape is not unlike that of the 


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Greek letter A. The third muscle proceeds from the lower border of the 
scapula; it draws the arm straight backward. The fourth muscle takes its 
origin from the spine of the sixth thoracic vertebra to the lower aspect of 
the os sacrum and from the apexes of the intermediate spines. It is drawn 
together into the vertex of a triangle and is inserted into the humerus where 
the three muscles just enumerated insert, far below the articulation of the 
head of the bone with the scapula. This muscle draws the arm downward 
in various directions, since its base is quite broad and not led from a point 
in such a fashion that the muscle would exercise a wholly simple movement. 
The fifth muscle occupies the entire cavity of the scapula facing the ribs. 
The sixth appropriates to itself the entire gibbous part of the scapula lying 
below the spine. The seventh fills the conspicuous sinus between the spine 
of the scapula and its upper border. These three are inserted by a broad 
implantation into the ligaments surrounding the shoulder joint; they acconp 
plish the rotation of the arm [31], and the seventh seems to be of some 
assistance in raising the arm. 

The first muscle of those which move the thorax [32] originates from 
the clavicle and is inserted into the first rib of the thorax; it moves this rib 
upward, at the same time assisting the dilatation of the thorax. The second 
arises from the base of the scapula and is inserted with digitations into the 
upper eight ribs long before they terminate in cartilage; it moves the ribs 
outward and dilates the thorax. The third muscle takes its origin as a broad 
membrane from the apexes of the three lower cervical spines as well as from 
the first thoracic vertebra and inserts with three digitations into the three 
interspaces of the four upper ribs beneath the base of the scapula; it moves 
these ribs obliquely upward and enlarges the thorax. The fourth originates 
on the iliac bone and passes upward to the neck, it is inserted into the twelve 
ribs where they first leave the vertebrae, and it contracts the thorax. The 
fifth originates from the apexes of the spines of the two lowest thoracic and 
some of the lumbar vertebrae. It is membranous, passes transversely, and is 
inserted into the ninth, tenth, and eleventh ribs at the place where they 
turn back into the deep parts; it dilates the thorax. The sixth lies back in 
the breadth of the thorax; it extends to the cartilages of the true ribs and 
to the side of the breastbone and contracts the thorax. 


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Internal and external muscles lie in the intervals of the twelve ribs [33]. 
Those external ones which are in the intervals between the bony ribs send 
their fibers from the upper rib obliquely to the lower rib straight opposite; 
the internal muscles send their fibers from the lower rib obliquely upward 
in the anterior direction to the upper rib. In the six intervals of the cartilages 
which are allotted to the true ribs, the fibers of the external muscles creep 
from the lower cartilage to the opposite upper cartilage in an oblique 
direction, but the internal fibers extend in reverse from the upper cartilage 
to the lower. 

Hence, muscles in groups of four are counted in the intervals of the six 
true ribs. In the interspaces of the false ribs, however, there are groups of 
only two. All the intercostal muscles on one side total thirty-four; all of 
them have the function of contracting the thorax. Forty muscles are enumer¬ 
ated thus far on one side of the thorax; there are the same number on the 
other side, and to these eighty muscles one is added, to wit, the septum 
transversum [diaphragm] itself [34], inserted into the lowest part of the 
breastbone and the cartilages of the false ribs as well as into the upper 
lumbar vertebrae. In the middle it is sinewy [35] but fleshy circumferentially 
toward the insertion; it divides those organs which serve for making blood 
and for generation from the region of the heart and of the parts which 
minister to the heart [36]. It has the function of dilating the thorax. 

To these are added eight muscles of the abdomen [37], four on each 
side. The first or outermost sends its fibers obliquely downward and for¬ 
ward, forming with its mate a covering for the abdomen. The second sends 
its fibers obliquely upward in the opposite direction and with its mate forms 
a covering for the abdomen. The third sends its fibers straight upward from 
the pubic bone to the chest. The fourth has its fibers distributed trans¬ 
versely and with its mate forms a covering for the abdomen, as do the 
oblique muscles; it renders assistance, no less than the other abdominal 
muscles, to the constriction of the thorax [38], 

Two muscles flex the elbow [39], of which the anterior derives one head 
from the higher region of the neck of the scapula and another head from 
the internal process of the scapula; formed with these heads, it is inserted 
into the radius. The posterior muscle originates from the humerus and is 


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inserted into the anterior region of the elbow joint or, rather, into die ulna. 
Three muscles extend the elbow [40]; one originates from the lower border 
of the scapula, and the second from the posterior aspect of the neck of the 
humerus. These merge together in their descent and a third joins with them, 
arising from near the middle of the length of the humerus and inserting 
together with them into the posterior process of the ulna. 

In the inner aspect of the elbow lies a slender muscle which arises from 
the inner protuberance of the humerus and turns into a flat tendon lying 
beneath the internal skin of the greater part of the hand. By its function it 
is believed that this skin is rendered less movable and more fitted for 
grasping [41]. 

The radius is led into pronation by two muscles [42]. One arises from the 
inner region of the elbow joint and is implanted obliquely on the radius; 
the other is borne from the ulna transversely to the radius near the wrist. 
The radius is led into supination [43] by two other muscles, one of them 
long and extending from the humerus to the lower part of the radius, to 
which the wrist is articulated. The other extends obliquely from the outer 
aspect of the elbow joint to the middle of the length of the radius and inserts 

The wrist is moved by four special muscles [44]; the first two grow 
forth from the inner protuberance of the humerus. One is inserted in the 
postbrachial bone which supports the index finger [second metacarpal], 
the other on the smallest bone of the wrist [pisiform]. The third arises from 
die humerus and is inserted with a bifid tendon into the postbrachial bones 
which sustain the index and middle fingers. The fourth, passing from the 
external tuberosity of the humerus and extending along the ulna, forms an 
insertion on the postbrachial bone which supports the litde finger. The first 
two simultaneously flex the wrist; when the third and fourth are simul- 
taneously contracted, they extend it. When the first is tensed with the third, 
the wrist is moved toward the inner side; when the second and fourth act 
together, it is inclined to the outer side. 

The first of the muscles which move the fingers of the hand [45] arises 
from the inner and anterior region of the elbow joint; proximal to the root 
of the wrist it splits into four tendons, inserted into the second intemodes 


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of the four fingers and flexing the intemodes. The second arises from the 
same place as the first but is more slanting and lies under the first muscle. 
It is also divided into four tendons, lying under those of the first; they pierce 
those tendons proximal to the root of the second intemode of the fingers. 
Finally they form an insertion in the third bones of the four fingers and 
flex them. The third arises from the radius near the elbow joint, is inserted 
into the third joint of the thumb, and flexes it. Thirteen other muscles follow 
the third muscle in series; they lie in the hand, and of them, two are inserted 
into the first bone of each of the five fingers and flex them. Three insert 
into the second intemode [first phalanx] of the thumb also and move it. 
The seventeenth muscle of those which move the fingers arises from the 
external protuberance of the armbone; it is inserted in the index, middle, 
and ring fingers especially and extends those fingers. The eighteenth muscle 
proceeds from the same region as the muscle just mentioned; it is the prime 
originator of the extension of the little finger and, blended to a varying 
extent with that tendon of the seventeenth which is inserted into the three 
bones of the ring finger, it subserves therein the abduction of that finger 
toward the exterior. The nineteenth, along with the twentydirst, has a 
common origin from the ulna; it arises near the region of the wrist. Almost 
divided into two tendons, it sends one to the outer side of the index, the 
other to the side of the middle finger, and is considered the author of the 
abduction of those fingers to the external side. The twentieth arises from 
the wrist; it extends along the external side of the postbrachial bone which 
supports the little finger, inserts on the first bone of that finger, and moves 
it outward to the side. The twentydirst is inserted on the outer side of the 
thumb as far as the third joint; it extends the thumb toward the index 
finger. The twenty'second proceeds from the ulna a little above the muscle 
just mentioned, and soon splits into two parts, one part ends in a tendon; it 
inserts on the bone of the wrist which supports the thumb and, passing to 
the place where the hand follows the motion of the radius in pronation, it 
lends assistance to that motion. The other part is likewise split into two 
parts which form one tendon each. Of these, the one inserts into the external 
side of the outer region of the first bone of the thumb; the other grows on 
that bone and is inserted on the second and third bones of the thumb. By 


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the function of these tendons, the thumb is flexed inward. The twenty-third 
occupies the region near the inner side of the first bone of the thumb and 
distinctly separates the thumb from the index finger. The twenty-fourth 
springs from the bone of the postbrachial which supports the index finger, 
is inserted chiefly into the first bone of the thumb, and brings the thumb 
close to the index. There remain four slender muscles extending in the palm 
from the four tendons of the second muscle of those which move the fingers. 
They are inserted on the inner side of the first bone of the four fingers, 
serving the abduction of those fingers thumbward. 

On the internal aspect of the elbow lies the muscle which forms the broad 
tendon of the hand: the^first and second muscles which cause the movements 
of the wrist; the first, second, and third of those which move the fingers; 
and two muscles which pronate the radius. In the external aspect lie the 
seventeenth, eighteenth, nineteenth, twenty-first, and twenty-second of the 
muscles which move the fingers; the third and fourth of those which have 
charge of the movements of the wrist; and two which supinate the radius. 
These total nine; there are ten if you distinguish from the twenty-second 
of those muscles which move the fingers that portion which offers a tendon 
to the bone of the wrist which supports the thumb. In the hand itself ten 
muscles are observed which flex the first joints of the fingers; three flex the 
second intemode of the thumb. Then there are the twentieth, twenty-third, 
and twenty-fourth of those which move the fingers, and four muscles by 
which the four fingers are moved toward the thumb. 

Each of the male testes, with their seminal vessels, is covered by a tunic 
which proceeds from the peritoneum [46] and is nourished by some straight 
fleshy fibers [47] inserted into the lowest region of the vessel carrying the 
semen [48]. One muscle of the testis is made up of these fibers; by its func¬ 
tion the testis is drawn upward closely. Thus also the membranes which 
secure the uterus are equipped on either side with fleshy fibers, and in this 
way the uterus has one muscle on either side by the assistance of which it 
is easily drawn upward toward the ilia [49]. One muscle, preventing the 
untimely excretion of the urine, arises circularly on the neck of the bladder 
[50]. Likewise, there is also a muscle which encircles the end of the rectum; 


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it prevents premature expulsion [51]. Two other muscles pull the rectum 
quickly upward after expulsion [52]. A slender muscle is inserted at the 
root of the penis from the pubic bone on either side, assisting its erection 
very slowly [53]. Likewise, two muscles arise dose to each other from the 
anterior region of the musde which embraces the rectum circularly; they 
are inserted at the urinary passage where it turns back and upward under 
the bones of the pubis. They dilate the passage during the ejaculation of 
semen so that it may not be shut off at the bend [54]. 

The first of the musdes which move the thigh [55] arises from the outer' 
most aspect of the iliac bone and the posterior region of the coccyx; it passes 
to the posterior region of the greater process of the femur and also is attached 
by a broad insertion into its root. The second musde is hidden under the 
first, in large part, but extends rather more forward from the anterior region 
of the iliac bone and is inserted into the greater process of the femur. The 
third is much smaller than the second musde and is completdy hidden by it. 
It arises from the iliac bone near the posterior region of the acetabulum of 
the coxendix [hipbone]; it is also inserted on the greater process of the 
femur. Like the two previously mentioned, it extends the femur, moving 
the latter outward to the side. The fourth musde extends from the three 
lower bones of the os sacrum, also inserts on the greater process, and extends 
the femur and turns it outward to some extent. The fifth is the largest of 
all the musdes of the body and, with many parts, it takes its origin from 
the bone of the coxendix [ischium] and of the pubis and is inserted into 
the posterior region of the femur as far as its lower heads [condyles]. This 
musde is the author of extension of the femur, holding it upright and 
moving it inward with a portion of it espedally thrust forward from the 
lower region of the pubic bone. The sixth musde takes its origin from the 
two lowest thoradc vertebrae and from some of the higher lumbar vertebrae; 
inserted into the lesser process of the femur, together with the seventh 
muscle, it flexes the thigh. The seventh musde proceeds from the entire 
internal aspect of the iliac bone; it also is inserted on the lesser process, 
higher than the sixth. The dghth passes from the pubic bone and is im' 
planted with a long insertion bdow the lesser process of the femur; it flexes 


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the thigh and also moves the thigh strongly inward. The ninth muscle 
occupies the anterior region of the foramen of the pubic bone; inserted into 
the greater process of the femur, it turns the femur inward. The tenth 
occupies the posterior or internal aspect of the foramen just mentioned and 
is very securely bent around the posterior part of the coxendix bone 
[ischium]. Like the other muscles here, it is increased by muscles arising 
from it. It is inserted on the greater process of the femur and turns the thigh 

The first muscle of those which move the leg [56] proceeds from the 
anterior region of the spine of the iliac bone and passes somewhat obliquely 
along the internal region of the thigh; it is inserted into the anterior region of 
the tibia and is at once the most slender and the longest muscle of the entire 
body. The second muscle proceeds from the union of the pubic bones: it 
inserts into the same region as the first. The third muscle begins from the 
appendix of the coxendix bone [ischium]; it is also implanted in the same 
region of the tibia. The fourth muscle passes forward from the same region 
of the coxendix bone and in its descent receives a portion of its sub' 
stance from the bone of the femur; it is inserted into the articulation of the 
tibia with the fibula, but especially into the fibula. The fifth muscle originates 
also in the same region and is inserted on the anterior aspect of the tibia with 
the first three muscles but in a less slanting direction. The sixth grows out 
from the spine of the ilium; it is covered by a sort of membrane along with 
the muscles investing the femur and is inserted in the knee joint rather near 
the outer side. The seventh muscle originates from the root of the greater 
process of the femur and occupies the external side of the thigh; it forms a 
tendon with the eighth and ninth, to which the patella is attached. The 
eighth arises from the neck of the femur and from the base of the latter’s 
greater process; this muscle closely encircles almost all of the femur. The 
ninth, taking origin conspicuously in the anterior region, arises from the pro- 
tuberance of the hipbone above its joint with the femur; lying on the 
seventh and eighth muscles, the ninth muscle is carried to the anterior region 
of the knee. Implanted very firmly on the anterior region of the tibia, this 
muscle turns into a tendon, forming one with the two muscles just men' 
tioned. Thus the first, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth muscles are con' 


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sidered the agents of the extension of the tibia, while the second, third, 
fourth, and fifth clearly flex the tibia.* 

The muscle which is hidden in the popliteal region [57] and which extends 
obliquely from the external ligament of the knee joint to the tibia, does not 
flex the leg; if it does anything, it vaguely imitates the motion of the first 
muscle which pronates the radius. 

Of the muscles which move the foot [58], the first originates from the 
inner head [condyle] of the femur near the knee joint, as the second begins 
from the outer head; both form the posterior part of the calf of the leg, 
and joining with the tendon of the fourth muscle which moves the foot, 
they are inserted on the heel. The third is a small muscle also proceeding 
from the external head of the femur and here in the popliteal region termi¬ 
nates in a very slender tendon which is inserted into the inner side of the 
os calds. The fourth, the largest of those which move the foot, begins from 
the articulation of the fibula with the tibia; it ends in a very strong tendon 
which is united with the tendon of the first two muscles likewise inserted, 
together with it, into the heel. The fifth muscle is placed very deeply in the 
posterior region of the tibia and the fibula. It originates from those same 
bones where they first separate, and near the rear of the internal aspect of 
the malleolus, it sends forth a tendon to a bone of the tarsus; the tendon is 
inserted in this bone, which is contiguous to the bone resembling a die [59]. 
The sixth, proceeding from the tibia where the fibula is articulated with it 
superiorly, is situated in the anterior region of the leg; its tendon inserts on 
the root of the metatarsal [os pedit] which supports the great toe. The 
seventh arises from the fibula, occupies the external side of the leg, and 
inserts a tendon, reflected under the inferior part of the foot, on the bone 
which supports the great toe. Inserting a tendon on the root of the bone 
which supports the little toe, the eighth is hidden under the seventh and 
also arises from the fibula. The ninth is part of that one which, as I am 
about to describe, extends the toes of the foot; it is inserted at almost the 

♦ . . . . atque ita primus, sextus, Septimus, octavus et nonus tibiae extensionis opifices habentur, 
secundo interim , tertio, quarto et quinto tibiam liquide extendentibus is the reading in the 
Latin text. 

To avoid the repetition of idea in extensionis and extendentibus which makes nonsense of this 
passage as it stands. I am forced to conclude that Vesalius meant to write flectentibus instead of 
extendentibus. I therefore emend the passage to read flectentibus and translate accordingly. 


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middle of the length of the metatarsal supporting the little toe. The foot is 
extended with the first five muscles or is firmly set upon the ground, although 
the third muscle performs this function feebly and, if it contributes at all to 
the movement of the foot, it turns the foot obliquely inward. The foot is 
flexed by the sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth muscles, and by their function 
it makes lateral movements, in so far as each muscle moves it. 

The first of the muscles which move the toes [60] is located entirely in 
die sole of the foot and in its lowest part possesses an exceedingly thick 
membrane acting as an intimate covering not unlike the broad tendon in the 
hand. This muscle arises from the bone of the heel and sends single tendons 
to the second intemodes of the four toes; these tendons flex the toes. The 
second and third muscles creep through the posterior region of the leg; the 
second arises from the tibia more than the fibula and, having arisen from it, 
sends into the sole of the foot a tendon which then divides into four tendons. 
One of these is inserted into the third bone of each of the four toes; the ten' 
dons, as happens also in the hand, pierce the tendons of the first muscle and 
flex those bones. The third arises from the joint of the fibula to the tibia and, 
extending more from the fibula, it sends a tendon to the sole of the foot, 
whence a small portion of it mingles with tendons which flex the third in' 
temode of the index and middle toes. The remainder of the muscle is inserted 
as a whole into the second bone of the great toe and flexes it. Ten muscles, 
mutually intermingled in a remarkable way, succeed these; attached to the 
metacarpals, they flex the first bones of the toes, with two muscles extend' 
ing to each of the toes. The fourteenth muscle, of which the ninth muscle 
of those which move the foot was reckoned a part, arises from the anterior 
region of the tibia and is divided into four tendons inserted into the four 
toes and regarded as the cause of their extension. The fifteenth also proceeds 
from the anterior region of the tibia; this muscle inserts on the great toe and 
is the master of this toe's extension. The sixteenth muscle lies in the upper 
region of the foot and is a fleshy mass divided into four tendons; of these, 
one is inserted on the external side of the upper aspect of the great toe, the 
second in that of the index, the third in the middle toe, and the fourth on 
the annular digit. These tendons move these toes toward the outer side. 
The seventeenth muscle occupies the external side of the foot and is inserted 


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on the first bone of the little toe; it moves this toe away from the other toes. 
The eighteenth muscle extends from the internal side of the foot; it abducts 
the big toe straight from the others. Then in the sole of the foot is a fleshy 
substance [61] divided into four slender portions which cling to the tendons 
by the function of which the third bones of the four toes are flexed. These 
portions are inserted on the inner side of the four toes at the first joint; they 
are considered the authors of the adduction of the toes toward the great toe. 

If you will count this last as four portions instead of four muscles, you 
will observe in the posterior region of the leg the first, second, third, and 
fourth of those muscles which move the foot, the second and third of those 
which move the toes, and under these the fifth of those which move the 
foot. In the anterior region lie the sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth muscles 
which cause the movements of the foot and the fourteenth and fifteenth of 
those which move the toes. In the foot you will have the first of those muscles 
which move the toes and the ten muscles which flex the first bones of the 
toes and the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth also of those which move 
the toes, unless it be proposed to divide the sixteenth into more than one 

In the description of the muscles, I have not made mention at all points of 
the ligaments, since for the most part they are mutually related with the 
joints. In all the joints is a ligament [62] running circularly from one bone 
to another or to a cartilage or from a cartilage to a bone, or the cartilage 
insertion extends from it separately. Special ligaments are an accession to a 
few joints. In the joint of the skull is a certain smooth round ligament run¬ 
ning from the dens of the second cervical vertebra to the occipital bone [63]. 
Along the posterior region of the dens, another one is carried transversely in 
the first vertebra [64]. The bodies of the vertebrae are joined by somewhat 
cartilaginous ligaments [65]; the ascending and descending processes of the 
«amt» bodies are connected with strong ligaments, but these only go round¬ 
about in circular fashion [66]. Then a membranous ligament is situated in 
the intervals of the spines, as also in die forearm and the leg, where the 
bones are separated from one another [67]. In addition, in the foramen of 
the pubic bone occurs a ligament, or rather a membrane, of this nature [68]. 
In the joint of the humerus, three special ligaments are observed [69]. The 


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first is round, arises from the internal process of the scapula, and runs to the 
external aspect of the head of the humerus. Two others arise from the higher 
region of the neck of the scapula; they extend to the same head, and one 
also is here led from the internal process of the scapula to the acromion 
[summits humerus]. In the joining of the bones of the wrist among them' 
selves and with the metacarpal bones, as also in the foot, cartilaginous liga¬ 
ments intervene. From the os sacrum two roundish ligaments extend to the 
ischium [70]. From the superior part of the head of the femur, a round liga¬ 
ment is inserted into the acetabulum of the hipbone [71]. A cartilaginous 
ligament is in the middle of the knee joint, and in the posterior region of 
that joint and on both sides, a special ligament is obvious to dissectors [72]. 
In the number of the ligaments covering the tendons transversely and con¬ 
taining the tendons, lest they slip from their seat [73], there is one in the 
inner region of the wrist which may be considered one and continuous, fol¬ 
lowing the entire inner aspect of each digit [74]; six occur next to the root 
of the wrist in the outer aspect of the radius and ulna [75]. A ligament is 
also observed in the anterior region of the leg near the talus [76], and three 
between the heel and the internal malleolus [77], There is one between the 
heel and the external malleolus [78]. Also, ligaments of this nature are 
observed in the internal or inferior aspect of the toes. 

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general interpretation 

I N attempting the identification of the muscles described in this chapter, a technique 
of annotation has been adopted which is well illustrated by note 16. The identify* 
ing name of the muscle group given in the text is stated briefly, and the numbers fob 
lowing correspond to the order in which the muscles themselves are described. The method 
serves the three following purposes: 

1. By reducing the number of footnote reference marks, the continuity of the text 
is less disturbed. 

2. Since, in subsequent chapters, the text makes several references to muscles by 
statements such as “the third muscle of those which move the jaw” and since 
the legends for the muscle plates are in similar form, it is intended that more 
rapid identification of the structure to which reference is made may result. It 
should be stated here that a complete collation of notes and plate legends has 
not been possible but that in a number of trials the device has proved useful. 

3. Emphasis is placed where the text places it, on muscle groups which act on, 
and across, joints. The text’s discussion of individual muscles is minimized; 
instead of directing attention to the minute details of their bony relationships, 
they are treated as functional masses. An increasing number of anatomists 
at present is recognizing the soundness of this view not only in kinesiology 
but as a basic philosophy of human biology. Yet this is only a rediscovery of 
a principle derivable from Vesalius’ text and stated more than two centuries 
earlier with conciseness and clarity by Mondino: “ .... we must first gain 
an idea of the whole, and then of the parts. For all our knowledge doth 
begin from what is known. For though the known is oft vague and though 
our knowledge of the whole is of a surety vaguer than that of the parts, we 
yet begin with a general consideration of the whole” (Charles Singer, “Fasd* 
culo di Medidna,” Monumenta Medial, series Vol. II, Part I, Florence: R. 
Lier and Co., 1925, p. 59). 

While the outline of Vesalius’ text corresponds to the “systematic” anatomy, the 
chapters themselves are written as functional anatomy (or, to borrow a term noticed 
recently, “dynamic morphology”). Vesalius’ conception of muscles as contractile 
masses associated with a joint and acting across it in co-ordination is more in accord 
with our ideas of synergy than is the treatment of them as single structures. The 
reasoning which derives a muscle’s action by considering it as an isolated contractile 
element tending to shorten the distance between its points of attachment is incorrect 
physiologically (for it is rare, except in pathologic states of major paralysis, for a 
muscle to act alone); it is incorrect embryologically and neurologically; finally, it has 
served to introduce errors which have been carried forward through many editions 
of the standard encyclopedias of anatomy. The modern student has difficulty in finding 
in any of these great reference texts as clear a concept of integration as was available 
to the Renaissance student who owned a Vesalian Epitome ; only‘with effort do we 


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lead the student from the morass of isolated osteologic and myologic textual state* 
ments to the terra firma of synergy. 

We are now being offered texts which are regional and functional rather than 
systematic anatomies. Some teachers are becoming more outspoken in their criticism 
of the teaching of anatomy as a discipline in morphology alone. To select one from 
many, a recent discussion of the approach to the teaching of anatomy states that 
"Stress is laid on the movements at joints and on their limitations. . . . The muscles 
are considered in functional groups rather than as separate units. ... In this depart* 
ment we have tended to neglect ... the memorizing of muscular attachments in 
relation to a bone instead of to a joint. ..." (Sheehan, "The Physiology of 
Anatomy," /. A. Am. M. Coll, XV [1940] 363). 

The whole field of integration of muscle group activity is being subjected to the 
laboratory investigation it so badly needs, and we may anticipate in the not so distant 
future the time when all anatomists take up where Vesalius left off with the teaching 
of this aspect of functional anatomy. 

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I VES ALIUS follows the old view which confused ligaments and nerves, or re* 
♦ garded the terms as synonymous. The Greek word from which comes our “nerve” 
originally meant tendon or sinew; hence the confusion. Observe (a) the relic of this 
usage which remains to us in the term “aponeurosis”—the flattened and membranous 
type of fibrous muscular attachment as opposed to “tendon” (example: the aponeurosis 
of the external abdominal oblique muscle, the galea aponeurotica of the epicranium); 
(b) the students' nickname for the slender, shining long tendon of the plantaris muscle: 
“Freshman’s nerve.” 

2. “Originating from”: principium ducens —not in the histogenetic sense of originating, 
but “leading forth from,” in the modern anatomical sense of a muscle’s origin. 

3. Tendinous membranes to which are attached die muscle fibers, as in a multipennate 
muscle such as the deltoid. 

4. Lead: compare the modem colloquial name for tendons, “leaders.” 

J. Dermis and epidermis. 

6. The deep fascia; the extended argument is presented in the Fabrica, and Vesalius 
does not consider it to be cameous. 

7. The superficial fascia, with its panniculus adiposus. 

8. Levator palpebrae superioris muscle. 

9. Orbicularis oculi muscle. The meaning of the paragraph is thus: where the con¬ 
nective tissue of the tendon attached to the upper border of the superior tarsus (and 
the fascia-sheath overlying this tendon) is followed back into the orbit, the fleshy 
(muscular) portion encountered is the levator; however, outside the palpebral fasda 
may be seen the incomplete circle of the sphincterlike muscle opposed to the levator 
—the orbicularis oculi. 

10. Muscles which move the eye: (1) rectus medialis, (2) rectus lateralis, (3) rectus 
superior, (4) rectus inferior, (5) and (6) obliqui superior et inferior. 

11. The fibrous ring annulus tendineus communis and the optic nerve. It is, of course, 
incorrect to include the inferior oblique as among the muscles arising from the annulus, 
for the former'8 origin is much more anterior, just lateral to the lacrimal sulcus. It is 
thus more equatorial in direction as compared to the meridional orientation of the 
first five named. 

12. The seventh muscle of the eye is the retractor oculi (or choanoides, “funnel- 
shaped”), not present in human beings. In the sheep’s eye it may be dissected out as 
a sheet of muscle underlying the other six, incompletely divided longitudinally, at¬ 
taching into the sclera behind the recti, and passing back to surround the optic nerve. 
See Sisson and Grossman, The Anatomy of Domestic Animals (1938), p. 883, for 
discussion of this muscle. Cf. Fabrica XII, xi; also Cushing’s BiO'Bibliography, pp. 186 


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and 190 for the exchange of opinion between Fallopius’ Observationes Anatomicae 
and Vesalius’ Examen (1561). 

13. Quadratus labii superioris: angular head on the one (medial) side, and infraorbital 
and zygomatic heads on the other (lateral) side. 

14. Nasalis, especially its alar portion. 

15. Muscles which move the cheeks and lips: (1) platysma, including the risorius, 
which is not always well separated; (2) zygomaticus; (3) mentalis, quadratus labii 
inferioris, and triangularis, treated as a single mass; (4) buccinator—observe the cor* 
rectness of its inclusion with the other muscles now known to arise from the second 
branchial arch and innervated by the facial nerve. The origin of the name is from 
buccinare: “to sound the trumpet”; compare Vesalius’ observation on “inflate” (the 
cheeks). The muscle is set aside as “somewhat different,” as if it is recognized that 
it is less a mimetic muscle than one associated with the next group, the muscles of 

16. Muscles which move the jaw: (1) temporalis, (2) masseter, (3) pterygoidei, 
(4) digastricus. 

17. Dunglison (A Dictionary of Medical Science, rev. ed., 1874) gives buccinator as 
the synonym. However, the muscle referred to is obvious from attachments given in 
the text, the buccinator has already been described, and Motherby (A 7^ew Medical 
Dictionary, London, 1785) indicates the masseter, as also Cooper, et al. The name 
“mansorius” is not found in Hyrtl’s Onomatologia Anatomica, usually a rich source 
of anatomical synonyms. 

18. Muscles moving the hyoid bone: (1) stemohyoids, (2) geniohyoids, (3) stylo- 
hyoids, (4) omohyoids. 

19. Extrinsic muscles of the tongue, in pairs: (1) aponeurotic fibers of genioglossus 
and hyothyroid membrane; (2) hyoglosus; (5 and 6, the third pair) styloglossus; 
(7 and 8, the fourth pair) mylohyoids (which do not actually insert into the tongue 
but form a raphe inserting on the hyoid bone and make a diaphragm on which the 
tongue rests). The “ninth muscle” is the genioglossus. 

20. The intrinsic muscles (generally oriented in three directions: vertical, longi¬ 
tudinal, and transverse). 

21. Muscles belonging to the larynx: first four are the cricothyreoidei (pars obliqua 
et pars recta) paired, second four are the cricoarytaenoidei laterales et posteriores, 
next pair is the thyreoarytaenoidei, and the last pair the arytaenoidei. This makes the 
total of twelve (six pairs). 

22. Thyrohyoidei. 

23. Stemothyroidei. 

24. Constrictor pharyngis, probably inferior. 

25. Hyoepiglottic ligament. 

26. Muscles which move the head and first cervical vertebra: (1) splenius capitis et 


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cervids, (2) probably semispinalis capitis, (3) rectus capitis posterior major, (4) 
rectus capitis posterior minor, (5) obliquus capitis superior, (6) obliquus capitis in* 
ferior, (7) stemocleidomastoidei. 

Observe that Vesalius probably turned the cadaver after demonstrating the hyoid 
and laryngeal musculature, since all of the pairs above except the seventh are most 
easily approached posteriorly. 

27. I.e., indirectly rotate the head by rotation of the neck and do not directly act 
on the head. 

28. Muscles which move the back: (1) longus colli, (2) scalenus anterior (and pos* 
sibly including scalenus medius; these muscles vary in attachment and arrangement of 
fibers), (3) longissimus cervids (portion of sacrospinalis), (4) semispinalis cervids, 
(5) quadratus lumborum, (6) longissimus position of sacrospinalis, (7) multifidus, 
espedally the more prominently developed lumbar portion, (8) semispinalis dorsi. 
The meaning of the last sentence is that these last two named are not uninterrupted 
bands of muscle but composed of many slips, with attachment to all vertebrae inter* 
vening between their termini. 

29. Musdes which move the scapula: (1) pectoralis minor, (2) trapezius, (3) levator 
scapulae, (4) rhomboidti major et minor. The monk's hood is an apt comparison for 
the trapezius; some readers may be more familiar with the shape of the (derived) hood 
worn with academic dress and may carry the likeness forward from that. The text 
reads as if the trapezius functions dther to elevate or to depress the scapula; its 
mechanism is not always dearly defined today. Actually, it probably rotates the bone, 
the upper part elevating the outer portion of the scapular spine, the lower (thoradc) 
part simultaneously depressing the inner portion of the spine. The center of rotation 
is in the spine and receives the predominantly aponeurotic, nonmuscular portions of 
the trapezius, acting to stabilize the fulcrum. By thus rotating the scapula (moving the 
inferior angle laterally), the trapezius aids the deltoid in its task of abduction of the 

30. Musdes which move the arm: (1) pectoralis ftiajor, (2) deltoideus, (3) teres 
major, (4) latissimus dorsi (the site of insertion described means “at the place where 
the first three musdes form a continuous line or mass of insertion extending far down 
the humerus from near its head"), (5) subscapularis, (6) infraspinatus, (7) supra* 

31. The fifth, sixth, and seventh of the group actually reinforce the ligaments of the 
shoulder joint and are concerned with internal and external rotation. 

32. Musdes which move the thorax: (1) subdavius, (2) serratus anterior (modern 
texts reverse the order of origin and insertion here), (3) serratus posterior superior, 
(4) probably iliocostales lumborum et dorsi, (5) serratus posterior inferior, (6) trans* 
versus thoracis. 

33. The enumeration of the intercostal musdes is at first glance somewhat formidable. 
By the term “true ribs" (costae verae) we mean the seven which connect to the 
sternum by separate costal cartilages. By “false ribs" (costae spuriae) we indicate the 


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eighth, ninth, and tenth, all sharing a cartilaginous connection, and the eleventh and 
twelfth “floating ribs/’ devoid of cartilaginous segments. There are, then, six inter' 
spaces for the true ribs and five associated with the false ribs. (The distinction be' 
tween true and false ribs can be traced back at least as far as Gerhard’s translation of 
Avicenna’s Canon ; see Singer’s Evolution of Anatomy, p. 81.) 

Each of the six interspaces is occupied by an external and an internal intercostal 
muscle. Vesalius subdivides each layer into two muscles: first, the fibers between the 
ribs proper; and second, the fibers between the costal cartilages. He thereby obtains 
four muscles per interspace. This division has validity for the internal intercostals 
(Wiggers’ Physiology in Health and Disease, in the chapter on “Respiratory Move' 
ments and Mechanics of Lung Inflation,’’ differentiates internal intercostals into 
interchondral and interosseous parts on the basis of functional differences during respira' 
tion), but the interchondral portions of the external sheet are aponeurotic and non' 
muscular “external intercostal ligaments’’ in modem conception (Morris, op. cit., 
p. 488). Nevertheless, it being clear that Vesalius regards them as muscles, we find 
four muscles per interspace in six interspaces, a total of twenty'four muscles. 

In the five interspaces associated with the false ribs, there are no appreciable inter' 
chondral spaces, with consequent lack of muscles in this category. Therefore, there 
exist only the two (external and internal) between each rib, a total of ten in all 
five interspaces. 

The figure thirty'four is the sum of twenty'four plus ten muscles. To list forty, include 
the six muscles listed in note 32; doubling this forty (to include both sides), we obtain 
the eighty. 

34. The term “septum transversum’’ is now an embryologic one; the diaphragm is 
related to it but the two are not identical. 

35. The central tendon. 

36. The relationship of the alimentary canal to hematopoiesis is set forth in Chap. 
HI; this, plus the liver'Spleen system of blood formation and the urogenital system, 
completes the abdominal contents. The lungs minister to the heart in several ways; 
according to Plato (one of Vesalius’ authorities), they even serve mechanically as a 
shock absorber (Timaeus). We speak frequently of the cardiorespiratory system. 

37. Muscles of the abdomen: (1) obliquus extemus abdominis, (2) obliquus intemus 
abdominis, (3) rectus abdominis, and (4) transversus abdominis. Observe that in 
this text no light is thrown on the superior attachment of the rectus abdominis. Vesalius’ 
plates on muscle in the Fabrica have been criticized as showing this muscle ascending 
as high as the manubrium. 

38. Compare here the training of singers, speakers, and wind'instrumentalists in dia' 
phragmatic and abdominal breathing, rather than intercostal. Vesalius seems to attrib' 
ute to these muscles only the accessory respiratory function, along with a passive 
containing of the abdominal viscera. Other functions, such as in efforts of expulsion 
(childbirth, defecation) and in lifting of weights, have been neglected. 

39. Muscles which flex the elbow: (1) the anterior, biceps brachii, (2) the posterior, 
brachialis, probably including coracobrachialis with the short head. 


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40. Muscles which extend the elbow: the triceps brachialis—(1) long head y (2) lateral 
head, (3) medial head. The “posterior process of the ulna is the olecranon. 

41. The palmaris longus; see note 5 of this chapter on “true skin.” It is worth while 
to note here the first use of a device employed several times in subsequent text; that 
is, the contrast of “it is believed” to “the professors of dissection believe.” The phrases 
are so used as to appear that in neither case is Vesalius as yet prepared to make a posi- 
tive statement; however, in the first case he suggests in an affirmative sense, while the 
second is indicative of doubt and partial denial. 

42. Muscles which pronate the radius: (1) pronator teres, (2) pronator quadratus. 
The forearm is being described in the anatomical position (radius and ulna parallel, 
thumb out, and palm anterior). 

43. Muscles which supinate the radius: (1) brachioradialis (old name, “supinator 
longus”), (2) supinator (supinator radii brevis). 

44. Muscles which move the brachial (wrist): (1) flexor carpi radialis, (2) flexor 
carpi ulnaris, (3) extensor carpi radialis longus et brevis, (4) extensor carpi ulnaris. 
Several points of confusion and ambiguity enter in attempting to define this group. 

49. Muscles which move the fingers: (1) flexor digitorum sublimis; (2) flexor digi- 
torum profundus; (3) flexor pollids longus (for “third joint of the thumb” see Chap. 
I, note 45); (4-16, incl.) the text is not adequate for exact identification, but the 
group probably includes for the thumb the extensor pollids brevis, abductor pollids 
brevis, flexor pollids brevis (lateral head), opponens pollids, and adductor pollids 
(transverse head); for the index finger, one dorsal and one volar interosseus; and for 
the little finger, a volar interosseus and probably the flexor digiti quinti brevis and 
opponens digiti quinti considered together; (17) extensor digitorum communis; (18) 
extensor digiti quinti proprius; (19) extensor indids proprius; (20) abductor digiti 
quinti; (21) extensor pollids longus et brevis; (23) flexor pollids brevis (medial head, 
also sometimes described as interosseus volaris primus); (24) adductor pollids (oblique 
head) [?]; (25-28) lumbricales. 

Some of the difficulty in understanding this section arises from inconstant use of the 
anatomical position in determining direction. 

46. The tunica vaginalis. 

47. Cremaster musde. 

48. Ductus (vas) deferens. 

49. This is probably not the broad ligament and uterine tube. While Vesalius did 
not recognize the significance of the tubes until they were described by Fallopius, he 
did consider them as uterine horns, as indicated in his letter to Fallopius. More likely 
he means here the smooth (involuntary) musde which may be found in the utero- 
sacral ligaments. 

50. Sphincter urethrae. 

51. Sphincter ani; the internus and extemus are probably not differentiated. 

52. Levator ani. 



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53. The original text uses extreme emphasis in the idea of “very slowly"; the sense 
is that of “lazily.” Vesalius seems uncertain of the effectiveness of the muscle. This 
is probably the ischiocavemosus muscle (which does have some pubic origin) although 
the ambiguity might admit identification of a ligament of the penis, such as fundiform 
or suspensory. 

54. Bulbocavemosus muscle. Present ideas of function attribute an ejaculator media* 
nism to this musde. 

55. Musdes which move the thigh: (1) glutaeus maximus (which passes over the 
greater trochanter with the interposition of a bursa and inserts instead just below on 
the gluteal tuberosity), (2) glutaeus medius, (3) glutaeus minimus, (4) piriformis, 
(5) the adductor group (including brevis, longus, magnus, and probably quadratus 
femoris—the upward continuation of the adductor magnus), (6) psaos major, (7) 
iliacus, (8) pectineus and adductor longus, perhaps induding brevis, (9) obturator 
extemus (which turns die femur outward ), (10) obturator intemus (which is “in* 
creased" by the superior and inferior gemelli). 

56. Musdes which move the leg: (1) sartorius, (2) gracilis, (3) semitendinosus, (4) 
biceps femoris, (5) semimembranosus, (6) tensor fasciae latae (the membrane is, of 
course, the fasaa lata proper), (7) vastus lateralis, (8) vastus intermedius et medialis 
(except for the lower portion of the medialis, which has a slightly different function, 
the consideration of these two as a unit is as defensible as the modem separation of 
them), (9) rectus femoris. The statement that the last*named “turns into" a tendon 
has the force of “degenerates"; following the Aristotelian idea of more and less 
noble parts, musde is superior to tendon, just as bone is to cartilage. 

57. Popiiteus. 

58. Musdes which move the foot: (1 and 2) gastrocnemius (medial and lateral heads), 
(3) plantaris, (4) soleus, (5) tibialis posterior, (6) tibialis anterior (into the base of 
metatarsal I), (7) peronaeus longus, (8) peronaeus brevis, (9) peronaeus tertius (quite 
accurately defined; see later the fourteenth of those which move the toes—extensor 
digitorum longus, of which this is a part; note 60 below). 

59. The insertion of the muscle is into the navicular bone. Probably the “bone re* 
sembling a die" is the cuboid, in spite of the fact that the talus is also contiguous and 
that its old name is astragalus (aoxQayakoq, “a die"). This identification is based on 
the fact that the tarsus is indicated and that to Vesalius the talus or astragalus is not a 
part of the tarsus proper (see Chap. I, note 53). In either case, the “die" is not used in 
the sense of printing or mechanics but should be compared to another old name for talus, 
nzGo6q t a small stone or other substance for playing at draughts. Note also the old 
Roman game of “knucklebones." 

60. Musdes which move the toes: (1) flexor digitorum brevis (with the plantar apo* 
neurosis); (2) flexor digitorum longus; (3) flexor halluds longus; (4*13) for the first 
toe the flexor halluds brevis and adductor hallucis; second toe, the two interossei dorsales; 
third toe, one interosseus dorsalis and one interosseus plantaris; fourth toe, the same; 
fifth toe, plantar interosseus and flexor digiti quinti brevis; (14) extensor digitorum 



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longus; (15) extensor hallucis longus; (16) extensor digitorum brevis; (17) abductor 
digiti quinti; (18) abductor hallucis. 

61. Quadratus plantae and lumbricales. 

62. Capsular ligament and collateral ligaments. 

63. The apical odontoid ligament. 

64. The transverse ligament of the axis. 

65. Intervertebral fibrocartilages. 

66. That is, they are not specialized accessions; falling in the class of the first-named they 
are capsular ligaments, between articular processes. 

67. The interspinous ligaments, compared to the interosseous membranes of forearm 
and leg. 

68. The obturator membrane. 

69. The coracohumeral is the first; the next two are glenohumeral; and possibly the last 
of the group is that portion of the glenohumeral which arises from the base of the 
coracoid process and attaches near the lesser tubercle. 

70. Sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments. 

71. Ligamentum teres femoris. 

72. Menisci and collateral ligaments. 

73. The various retinacula and mucous tendon sheaths are not differentiated here, as 
appears by inspection of the text 

74. Transverse carpal ligament and digital extension of palmar fascia. 

75. The six tendons sheathed on the dorsum of the wrist are, from medial to lateral: 
extensores carpi ulnaris, digiti quinti proprius, digitorum communis and indicis proprius, 
pollids longus, carpi radialis longus et brevis, pollids brevis and abductor pollids 

76. Transverse crural ligament (and mucous sheath of tibialis anterior muscle). 

77. Mucous sheaths for tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis 

78. More likely the mucous sheath of the peronaeus longus than the retinaculum 
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S INCE man has been unable to form the substance of an immortal being 
by means of the genital semen and the menstrual blood (the origins of our 
generation and of those parts of which we are composed [1]), the great 
Creator of things has carefully devised that man should live as long as 
possible and that his species, never failing, should continue to exist forever. 
In order that man might attain to the stature for which he was intended and 
that those elements upon which his innate heat is continually fed might be 
restored as quickly as possible, he possesses organs which serve to nourish 
him in many ways. 

The food is broken up by the teeth in order that the task may later be 
completed more easily. Food, as well as drink, passes from the mouth to the 
stomach as into a storehouse along a path called the esophagus or gullet [2]. 
This is extended by two special tunics appropriately formed to descend from 
the fauces behind the rough artery [3] and then along the vertebrae of the 
thorax through the transverse septum to the upper, or left-hand, orifice of 
the stomach. 

The stomach lies between the liver and the spleen under the septum. It 
is particularly roomy and rather long transversely, larger on the left-hand 
region of the body than on the right; it is equipped with two tunics suitable 
for distending and contracting [4] and enclosed by a third covering derived 
from the peritoneum. The stomach is intertwined with many veins, arteries, 
and nerves. It concocts what is sent down to it from the mouth and changes 
this by an innate force into a thick milky juice [5}. This passes through the 
lower orifice of the stomach from the higher region of its right side and is 
sent into the intestines. 


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The intestines are rounded, extending from stomach to anus in a continu' 
ous course made tortuous by innumerable coils and turns; like the stomach, 
they are fashioned from two tunics. To these is added from the peritoneum 
a third tunic adapted for relaxing and contracting no less than the first two 
tunics proper to the intestines but not everywhere equally extensive [6]. 
The origin of the intestines proceeds from the stomach; along the posterior 
side of the stomach, reflected toward the back, lies the organ we call the 
duodenum. Following this is the part of the intestines known as the jejunum 
and that which is called the ileum or volvulus. The cods of the latter fill the 
ilia and the region lying under, and contiguous on all sides to, the umbilicus; 
it is of almost constant diameter. The narrowness of this organ provides the 
reason for designating as small intestines the parts just mentioned. The part 
of the intestines in which the terminus of the ileum lies is broad and very 
thick; in its entire course it constitutes the colon. Joined to it is a small ap' 
pendage, narrow and curled like an earthworm; this has one orifice and is 
therefore called blind by the masters of dissection [7]. The thick part of the 
intestines itself ascends from the region of the right kidney to the concavity 
of the liver. Thence it proceeds along the base of the stomach to the region 
of the spleen, then turns downward along the region of the left kidney, and 
bends back to the left region of the pubis in a sort of coil [8]. This last 
passes above the beginning of the os sacrum straight down to the anus, 
thereby obtaining the name of the straight and principal intestine [9]. 

Thus, whatever has been prepared in the stomach is sent down through 
these intestines to be forced through their various coils. Veins in innumer' 
able series pass from the concavity of the liver, together with the arteries 
drawn off from the great artery, between the two membranes which fasten 
the intestines to the back. These veins are quite thick and dense, abounding 
in much fat and glands; they are called the mesentery and extend to the 
intestines [10]. The veins suck out from the intestines (especially the small 
ones) whatever is suitable for the making of the blood [11], together with 
the aqueous and thin refuse of the stomach’s concoction, and carry it to the 
workshop of the liver, where the blood is made. But that refuse which is 
thicker and less adaptable to suction is gradually collected in the thick kites' 
tine; it is kept there only until, it becoming troublesome to man, the muscle 


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surrounding the rectum in circular fashion relaxes, and the refuse is borne 
forth at once and completely at the will of man. 

The liver is not divided into fibers or lobes [12]; it occupies a position 
higher than that of the organs ministering to it [13] and for the most part 
lies in intimate relation to the stomach; the liver is placed dose beneath the 
transverse septum and fills the right, rather more than the left, region of 
the body. It is gibbous above and hollow below, conforming exactly to the 
shape of the parts lying near it [14]. It is formed by the intertwining of 
many veins and is surrounded by the substance proper to the liver, similar 
to recently coagulated blood [15]. It is dothed with a thin membrane [16] 
proceeding from the ligaments with which it is secured to the peritoneum. 
It admits two small nerves [17] and one artery. It is the tinder of the natural 
or nutritive faculty or, as Plato said, of the part of the soul which desires the 
pleasures of love, food, and drink [18]. 

One series of veins diffused through the liver lies in its gibbous part, 
extending to the vena cava [19]. Another series forming the stem of the 
portal vtin lies in the hollow of the liver. This vein sends two branches first to 
the bladder which recdves the yellow bile [20], then to the lower region of 
the stomach near its lower orifice [21]. 

Thence a branch runs to the right part of the base of the stomach [22], 
from which small branches spread out to the stomach and the upper mem' 
brane of the omentum [23]. The omentum is a membranous body fashioned 
like a sack and especially adapted for conducting vessels in safety. However, 
since it is full of vdns, arteries, and the fat attached to them, it also assists in 
preserving the warmth of the intestines. It is borne in a circular fashion, be' 
ginning from the middle of the back under the posterior region of the stomach, 
through the hollow of the liver, to the base of the stomach (from the third 
tunic of which it here arises). Then it is carried down to the hollow of the 
spleen and thence to the middle of the back where it started [24]. Like a sack 
stretched downward, the omentum covers the anterior region of the intestines, 
or there where the colon is stretched under the stomach, it arises, joining the 
back in place of a mesentery. The stem of the portal vein, after having been 
supported by the omentum, sends out the branches just mentioned. 

The stem is divided into two trunks; the right one [25], which is larger, is 


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carried in various ways through the mesentery and is offered to the intestines 
(first the duodenal intestine); the right trunk also presents a branch to the 
beginning of the jejunum. The right trunk is supported by a glandulous body 
stretched out in this region of the intestines [26]. The left trunk, having 
been woven into the lower region of the omentum, sends a small branch to 
the posterior region of the stomach, where the latter faces the right part 
of the back, then also to the inferior membrane of the omentum. Next the 
branch goes to the glands, fleshy in color, which are in charge of the safe 
distribution of the vessels here. A branch ascends from it along the posterior 
side of the stomach; this branch sends out other branches to the region of 
the stomach which faces toward the middle of the back and embraces the 
upper orifice of the stomach in the manner of a crown [27]. From this, in 
addition to the branches sent upward and downward, one creeps forward 
along the posterior side of the stomach to its lower orifice. 

The left trunk of the stem of the portal vein, extending ever to the left 
[28], sends an outstanding vein woven into the omentum and the colon; it 
is divided into various branches and sends an offshoot as far as the lower 
membrane of the omentum [29]. It is inserted into the hollow of the spleen 
by means of its own offshoots before they enter the spleen. To the left side of 
the stomach, it sends little branches [30], among which a notable one creeps 
along the base of the stomach in the left region and sends shoots to the 
stomach and to the upper membrane of the omentum [31]. 

Offshoots of the portal vein are distributed through the substance of the 
liver; within them is contained whatever is brought to the liver from the 
intestines, to say nothing of the stomach. The liver, concocting the best part 
of that chyme, changes it into blood, obtaining also a twofold refuse of its 
concoctions, such as we see in all wines and other similar concoctions. One 
is thicker than the other and, because it is considered, as it were, the dross 
and offscouring of the blood, is commonly called the black bile. It is carried 
through the portal vein to the spleen, which lies below and behind the left 
side of the stomach. The spleen looks like a rather thick tongue [32]; it 
adjusts itself to the shape of the organs lying close to it, just as the liver 
does. It is likewise interwoven with many veins and arteries, by which the 
proper flesh of the spleen is rendered similar to muddy blood. The spleen is 


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covered with a thin tunic sent forth from the omentum [33]. We believe 
[ 34] the spleen draws to itself the thicker refuse of the liver and converts it 
into nourishment for itself, and whatever it cannot assimilate, it throws up 
into the stomach. 

The thinner refuse of the liver, which is regarded as a sort of flowers of 
the wine, is the yellow bile. It is drawn into passageways between those 
offshoots of the portal vein and the vena cava which are distributed through 
the substance of the liver. These passageways, gathered together, end in a 
single channel which proceeds from the hollow of the liver and extends to 
the gall bladder [35]. This, like a rather long pear in the concavity of the 
liver, arises in the middle of the liver’s breadth and is provided with a body 
adapted for distending and relaxing. The professors of anatomy are con' 
vinced [ 36] that, in the case of this bladder, the bile is preserved until, by 
the action of its special duct, it is thrust forth into the duodenum. The bile 
must be carried out along with the dry refuse of the stomach. With its biting 
quality it irritates the intestines for propelling this refuse and frees them 
from the phlegm which clings to the refuse [37]. 

The blood, cleansed of the excrement just referred to, rushes from the 
narrowest branches of the portal vein into the smallest offshoots of the vena 
cava [38]. The blood uses as a vehicle [39] the thin watery refuse which 
it had taken up to the liver from the intestines. This refuse, accompanying 
the blood thus far and ascending together with it into the vena cava, renders 
a signal service to it in these narrow passages. For since, thus far, this refuse 
aids the blood in the function of a prompt distribution, it is also suitable 
for this refuse to carry off whatever overabundant supply of itself [the 
refuse] the blood does not require and to purge the blood of that which 
would be a burden. 

This office of purgation is most fitly performed by the kidneys, one each 
on either side of the vena cava and very close to the liver. They quickly 
draw the greater part of the serous humor of the liver toward themselves 
and strain it from the blood [40]. In order that they may accomplish this 
more handily, a notable vein and likewise an artery are extended to the 
kidney; the kidney receives the serous blood into a membranous sinus which 


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.is broad and hollow and divided into many offshoots concealed by the sub¬ 
stance of the kidney and covered over with a double tunic [41]. By its 
function the urine is expelled and led off into another sinus which is pro¬ 
longed as the urinary passage constructed like a vein [42]; this urine is 
going to be carried to the bladder. 

The bladder, situated at the posterior region of the pubic bone, gradually 
receives the urine [43]. Shaped like a rotund flask, it is formed of its own 
simple and sinewy tunic, interwoven with a threefold type of fibers, ready 
to be distended or contracted [44]. Another membrane is drawn over it 
from the peritoneum or the membrane of the abdomen, which is the cover¬ 
ing and protection of the organs thus far mentioned. Single passageways 
from each of the kidneys are carefully inserted in the posterior portion of 
the bladder not far from its neck. This collects the urine only so long until 
it troubles man either by its abundance or its quality; then it is completely 
voided by the opening of the muscle which surrounds the neck of the bladder 
in circular fashion [45]. 

The blood, purified by this operation, is distributed through the branches 
of the vena cava or its rivulets over the entire body in order that the sepa¬ 
rate parts may drain from the blood that which is proper to them; changing 
and applying it to themselves, they then convert it to their own nourish¬ 
ment. Finally, also, they drive off the refuse of this concoction from them¬ 
selves by their own functions. 

The series of the vena cava is for the most part as follows: while it is 
located in the posterior region of the liver, it sends forth branches from its 
own anterior aspect distributed in a numerous series to the gibbous part 
of the liver. Then ascending and perforating the transverse septum and the 
pericardium, it sends two offshoots to the septum [46]. At the level of the 
right auricle of the heart, the vena cava opens toward the right ventricle 
with an opening wider than the circular width of the vena cava elsewhere. 
From the posterior region of its implantation (unless you prefer to say 
risin g [47]), a vein proceeds surrounding the base of the heart in the man¬ 
ner of a crown and sending little branches downward along the upper sur¬ 
face of the heart [48]. The vena cava, rising upward from the heart, there 
where it pierces the pericardium, sends off from the right side, the azygous 


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i 111 i i 


vein, which nourishes the eight, more commonly lower, intervals of the ribs * 
on both sides. 

In the throat the vena cava is divided into two parts [49], sending veins 
from its anterior region to the pectoral bone and to the membranes dividing 
the thorax, and creeping through the upper part of the abdomen [50]. From 
the root of the one branch of the division into two parts in the throat arises 
a notable vein running above the first rib to the armpit [51] but first sending 
into the cavity of the thorax a branch which disappears in the three upper 
intervals of the ribs of its side [52], and another branch through the trails' 
verse processes of the cervical vertebrae all the way to the skull [53], and 
another spread out in the posterior part of the thorax near the root of the 
neck [54]. The present vein, having meanwhile, passed out of the thorax, 
here sends forth the shoulder vein [humerariam uenam] [55] and a branch 
to the muscles spread over the anterior region of the thorax [56]; then, 
hastening on into the armpit, it sends another to the posterior region of 
the thorax and the hollow of the scapula [57], and then another to the side 
of the thorax [58]. 

The remaining branch of the trunk split into two parts in the throat 
is again divided into two unequal branches. Of these, the inner and more 
slender one forms the internal jugular vein. It enters the skull, with two 
offshoots passing to the dural membrane of the brain. The outer branch 
sends an offshoot from its outer side; from this the humeral vein [humeralis 
uena ] is derived [59]. It goes upward, forming the superficial jugular, 
running in various ways up to the fauces, and distributed to the tongue, 
the larynx, the palate, the face, the temples, and the vertex and entering 
the skull with three veins. 

The humeral vein, before it is carried under the clavicle and the acromion 
into the arm, extends a branch to the posterior region of the neck [60] 
and another to the gibbous part of the scapula. Another branch goes to the 
upper region of the acromion [61], and a second creeps under the skin, 
following along the outer side of the anterior muscle of those which flex 
the elbow [62]; bringing forth slender shoots to the skin, it divides in front 
of the elbow joint. Sometimes one branch lies deeper and soon disappears, 

* . . . . octo frequentius inferiora costarum intervalla. 


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passing to the elbow joint. Another runs obliquely under the skin to the 
middle of the bend of the elbow [63] to meet with the branch of the axillary 
vein and to form one vein in common with it [64]. A third passes under 
the skin along the radius to the posterior aspect of the forearm, finally to the 
root of the wrist near the end of the ulna [65]; it mingles there with 
the offshoot of the axillary vein and rises to the outer side of the little finger 
and the ring finger [66]. 

The axillary vein lies hidden in the armpit and sends a branch to the skin 
covering the anterior region of the arm toward the inner aspect. It presents 
an offshoot to the heads of the muscles which extend the elbow and another 
at almost the middle of their length [67]. Then the axillary vein sends 
another offshoot, with the fourth nerve that proceeds to the arm, along the 
posterior aspect of the arm up to the exterior region of the forearm [68]. 
It is soon cut into two veins, one of which sinks completely into the depths 
in its entire length, continually accompanied by an artery [69]. This vein 
passes through the middle of the bend of the elbow joint; before it reaches 
the middle of the length of the forearm, it is cut into two offshoots, one 
of which stretches along the radius [70], the other along the ulna toward 
the wrist [71]. Here it is again split into offshoots [72], distributed to the 
inner region of the fingers in such a way that it offers two twigs to each 
of them; one shoot, extending to the external region of the hand, is dis' 
tributed between the first intemode of the thumb and the metacarpal bone 
supporting the index finger. 

Extending under the skin all the way, the other branch from the axillary 

vein [73] is divided into two branches near the elbow joint. One of these 


branches runs obliquely toward the bend of the elbow joint and merges 
with the branch of the humeral vein which is composed of those two middle 
veins, forming a common vein with it [74]. Running obliquely downward 
along the radius, this is divided into two offshoots like the letter Y in the 
external region of the forearm. One of these runs for the most part to the 
external region of the middle finger; the other runs to the thumb and index 
finger and sends an offshoot into the internal region of the hand to mingle 
with the small branches encircling the sacred hill of Venus [75]. The other 
branch from the axillary vein formed by the division near the elbow joint 


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sends various offshoots to the internal region of the forearm [76]. In associa' 
don with these branches, a vein often occurs arising from the other branch 
constituting a common vein which the axillary sends forth. These offshoots 
come close together in various ways at times; again, they separate in turn 
and are interwoven in the skin in the inner aspect of the forearm. Finally 
they creep forward to the skin of the internal part of the hand. The more 
outstanding offshoot of this branch extends to the ulna and sends offshoots 
in similar fashion into the external region of the forearm. It merges with 
the branch of the shoulder vein [humerariae] near the root of the wrist as 
that branch runs to the little finger and the ring finger. 

A part of the vena cava runs downward below the liver. It sends a branch 
from the left side to the fatty tunic of the left kidney and the region contig' 
uous to it [77]. Then a large vein is borne to each of the kidneys. From 
the superior aspect of the vein seeking the right kidney (which vessel fre' 
quently originates higher than the vein belonging to the left kidney), an 
offshoot approaches the fatty tunic of the right kidney [78]. From the 
inferior aspect of that vein which passes to the left kidney, a seminal vein 
arises; the right seminal vein originates much lower down from the trunk 
of the vena cava [79], Further, where the vena cava lies upon the lumbar 
vertebrae, it gives offshoots to the latter in clusters which finally disappear 
into the nearby muscles and sides of the abdomen [80]. The most out' 
standing of these are those which arise from the vena cava where it divides 
into two equal trunks [81] above the union of the os sacrum and the 
lumbar vertebrae. Both the right and left trunks send some offshoots to the 
foramina of the os sacrum [82]. 

Each trunk is divided into two branches, of which the inner [83] sends 
an offshoot which ends in the muscles occupying the posterior regions of 
the iliac and sacral bones [84], Another offshoot goes to the bladder and 
penis [85]; in women it extends to the uterus in the form of many smaller 
shoots [86]. That which is left of this branch anastomoses with the external 
branch and is led through the foramen of the pubic bone to the thigh [87], 
where it sends offshoots to the skin and muscles occupying the inner femoral 
region. Proximal to the knee joint, it ends, joining its terminus with the 
branch of another vein which extends to the leg, as I shall soon describe. 


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The external branch [88] of the left trunk of the vena cava, when it is 
about to pass through the groin to the thigh, sends to the peritoneum an 
offshoot which terminates in the lower region of the abdomen up to the 
umbilicus [89]. Extending downward upon the thigh, the external branch 
sends a shoot to the skin of the pubis and to the hillocks of the female 
pudenda [90]. It sends a notable vein under the skin through the internal 
aspect of the thigh, knee, and leg as far as the end of the toes [91]; in its 
progress it distributes other branches here and there to the skin. Another 
vein is also sent under the skin to the anterior region of the hip joint [92]. 
Itself more deeply submerged among the muscles, the trunk [93] sends an 
offshoot to the muscles located in the external region of the thigh and to the 
skin [94]; it sends another offshoot to the muscles which appropriate to 
themselves the inner and anterior region of the thigh [95]. With this off' 
shoot is joined the end of that vein which descended through the foramen 
of the pubic bone. Thence the large vein [93] winds back to the posterior 
part of the thigh and sends offshoots to the muscles of that region; from 
these offshoots little branches extend to the skin, upward and downward as 
far as the calf. 

This large vein is divided into two trunks between the lower heads of 
the femur. The lesser outer one extends to the fibula [96]; from it, in addi' 
tion to small branches extending to the anterior aspect of the knee [97], 
a branch is separated which proceeds posteriorly under the skin covering 
the external region of the leg and which is variously divided toward the 
upper part of the toes [98]. That portion of it which remains hidden higher 
up among the muscles extending toward the external region of the fibula 
runs past the middle of the length of the leg. The inner of the two trunks 
is quite large [99]; along the inner region of the tibia, it sends a branch 
spread out posteriorly under the skin as far as the toes. Another branch is 
sent forth, somewhat hidden through the calf and stretching as far as the 
heel. Especially worthy of note concerning this trunk is the fact that it 
extends to the muscles which occupy the posterior aspect of the leg. It sends 
a branch from its anterior aspect down through the membranous ligament 
which binds the fibula to the tibia. The branch hidden under the anterior 
muscles which surround the tibia extends to the upper part of the foot [ 100]. 


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The vein itself, running down along the posterior part and thence sending 
shoots to the skin and the contiguous muscles, finally enters the lower portion 
of the foot between heel and tibia and is there distributed to the muscles 
and toes in such a way that two offshoots are sent to each toe. 

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I N THIS and the following chapters, the physiology departs sufficiently from modem 
concepts and is so dispersed through the text that it seems appropriate to bring it 
together in brief abstracts. To these are joined such remarks of general nature as may 
refer to the subject and yet find no specific place in the serial notes. 

The Vesalian discussion of blood and bile is an effort to bring to the prevailing 
humoral theory of physiology and pathology some degree of anatomical specificity. 
The theory, which probably originated with primitive man, was used in Vedic medi- 
cine, proclaimed to the West by Hippocrates, “proved" by Galen, and held in good 
repute until the time of Virchow. It is not surprising to find that, in the main, Vesalius 
accepts it; his position is to carry forward the efforts of Erasistratus to take it out 
of the realm of metaphysical speculation. 

Vesalius believes that the mesenteric vessels carry material absorbed from the intes¬ 
tines to the liver (via the portal vein). Blood is formed in the liver and enters the 
circulation through the hepatic vein. In the liver is obtained a refuse which consists 
of two parts, comparable to the flowers (or supernatant scum) and lees (or dregs) of 
wine. The thicker is the black bile, which is sent back through the portal vein to the 
spleen; no effort is made to explain this two-way flow in the portal vein (intestine to 
liver and liver to spleen). It is not difficult to understand the “black bile" (atra bilis, 
melancholia) of the splenic vein when one remembers that the blood coming from 
the spleen actually contains a high concentration of hemoglobin breakdown pigments. 
Anything in the black bile not usable by the spleen is sent (via the left gastroepiploic 
vein?) to the stomach. 

The thinner decoction of the liver is the yellow bile, which is sent to the gall bladder. 
While Vesalius has some doubt as to the role of the gall bladder as a storage organ, 
he recognizes that bile is the “physiological laxative," acting as an irritant (through 
its “biting quality") to increase intestinal motility. 

The noncellular component of blood leaving the liver contains some waste material, 
which is carried to the inferior vena cava and then to the kidneys for excretion. In a 
later chapter Vesalius states that the two kidneys have slightly different functions 
with respect to this excretion; he thereby accounts for the difference in right and left 
internal spermatic veins and explains the method by which erotic activity and forma¬ 
tion of seminal fluid are stimulated by its acrid quality. 

The blood is now freed from all useless or harmful substances and is distributed to 
all parts of the body by the veins. The various tissues extract from blood useful sub¬ 
stances and return to it their own refuse from metabolism. 

Phlegm, the fourth humor, is mentioned only in passing; the account of its origin 
is contained in a later chapter. 

The only authority named in the Epitome* Plato, is dted in this chapter in con¬ 
nection with the discussion of the liver. While the exact source is not given, I believe 
it to be the Timaeus. This dialogue, while starting with cosmogony, mathematics, and 

* With the exception of a passing mention of Galen in the section on regional anatomy. 


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astronomy, devotes its last third to anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Without doubt 
Vesalius is as familiar with the content as he is with the work of Hippocrates, Aris¬ 
totle, and Galen. Plato believes the soul is tripartite, with special regions of the 
body as the seat of each part. The head, being spherical and most perfect in shape, 
is the seat of reason and intellect, the most perfect part of the soul. It is above the 
other seats of soul-portions, and hence reason is placed in a dominant position. The 
breast is the seat of the nobler passions; it is not to be identified with the head, and 
hence the neck has been interposed. The diaphragm divides the nobler soul from the 
coarser base soul, with its bodily appetites and sensuality, seated in the abdomen. The 
liver has a degree of control over this last in that: (a) it contains “bitter,’’ which it 
uses to restrain the cravings; (b) it contains “sweet,’’ to be discharged when desires 
conform to reason; (c) it is like a mirror, smooth and bright (note the pathologist’s 
phrase, “smooth, moist, and glistening’’), and may thus reflect the thoughts. 

In the Symposium of Plato, the myth of the Charioteer and the two horses is thought 
to be an allegorical statement of this theory of the soul. 

The reader interested in the history of medical concepts will, if not already familiar 
with the Timaeus, find much delight in reading it. 


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1 BY Aristotelian teaching (as in De Gcneratione Animalium ), the semen of the 
♦ male is a pure secretion containing the soul principle, while the catamenia is a 
female semen lacking this principle. Introduction of the soul principle to the secretion 
of the female results in conception and formation of the embryo. 

2. The “path" itself is the lumen, and the two tunics the mucosa and the muscularis' 

3. Trachea; “rough" because of its cartilage rings, “artery" because it is an air pas* 

4. The same two layers as in note 2, plus the serosa, a reflection of the peritoneum. 

5. The add chyme. 

6. This is a brief statement of the fact that not all of the intestine is in a broad mesen- 
tery but in a number of places becomes almost retroperitoneal. 

7. The cecum, “blind," as in a “blind alley" or cul'de'sac. The appendix vermiformis 
is the part here designated in particular as blind. 

8. The sigmoid colon. 

9. Intestinum rectum. 

10. The mesenteric vessels, within the two sheets of serosa making up the mesentery. 
The glands are mesenteric lymph nodes. 

11. “Suck out": compare the observation of H. S. Wells, Am. /. Physiol , XCIX 
(1931), 209, that the osmotic pressure here is enough to balance a negative intra* 
intestinal pressure of 8 to 26 cm of normal saline solution. While we would not say 
“suck," the concept of some of the absorptive mechanism is suggested. 

12. In correction of a standing anatomical error of the time, probably deriving from 
dissection of lower mammals. 

13. “Ministering to it" via the portal venous system. 

14. The many impressions on the surface of the liver. 

15. The Galenic concept of the nature of liver parenchyma. 

16. The tunica serosa—Glisson’s capsule. 

17. From the left vagus and the sympathetic (celiac plexus) via the hepatic plexus. 

18. The T imaeus; see general interpretation to this chapter; also Republic 439a'440. 

19. The intralobular veins join to form the hepatic vein. 

20. Gall bladder; cystic vein. 

21. Pyloric vein. 

22. Right gastroepiploic vein. 


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23. “The upper membrane" is the anterior portion of the gastrocolic fold. 

24. Successively, the gastrohepatic, gastrolienal, and lienorenal “ligaments" or portions 
of the omentum. 

25. The superior mesenteric vein. 

26. Pancreaticoduodenal vein; the pancreas. 

27. The coronary vein. 

28. The lienal (splenic) vein. 

29. The inferior mesenteric and left colic veins. 

30. The short gastric veins. , 

31. The left gastroepiploic; the vein is “notable" because of its part in the relation* 
ship of spleen to stomach (see text and general interpretation). 

32. That is, it has a broad side and an opposing sharp border. 

33. The capsule is formed by a reflection of the dorsal mesogastrium. 

34. See Chap. II, note 41. 

35. The bile ducts and hepatic duct. 

36. See Chap. II, note 41. To bring the sentence on the gall bladder up to date, one 
would have only to say that “the professors of anatomy are convinced but the profes* 
sors of physiology doubt, etc." The words which have been exchanged over just such 
controversies as this are those which prompted Truthful James to remark: 

I hold it not quite wise in any scientific gent 
To say another is an ass, at least to all intent. 

— Bret Harte, “The Society upon the Stanislaus" 

37. Note the recognition of the laxative function of the bile salts. 

38. The confluence of the hepatic arterial and portal venous blood into the central 
veins and thence via the hepatic vein to the vena cava. 

39. Vehicle, in the (present) pharmaceutical sense of a fluid “carrier" for the active 

40. The liver effluent blood contains wastes for excretion by the kidney; for example, 
the liver is a prime source of urea, one of the discards of protein metabolism. 

41. The outer “tunic" was the peripelvic tissue; the inner, the kidney pelvis and 

42. Ureter. 

43. Observe the contrast in Vesalius' expressions of rate of activity: blood “rushes" 
“quickly" in speaking of liver and kidney circulation in the two preceding paragraphs, 
but urine is secreted “gradually." Vesalius performed a number of physiologic obser* 
vations as well as anatomies. (Lambert, “The Physiology of Vesalius," Bull. ?{ew T or\ 
Acad. Med., XII, No. 6 [June, 1936}.) 


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44. Nerve: a connective tissue sheet like an aponeurosis; see Chap. II, note 1. 

45. Chap. II, note 50. The detrusor muscle and the sphincters. 

46. The inferior phrenic veins. 

47. Using the Aristotelian idea of a vena caval origin at the heart, rather than the 
Galenic concept of a hepatic origin. 

48. Great cardiac vein and especially the coronary sinus. 

49. The innominate veins. 

50. Internal mammary and superior phrenic veins. 

51. Axillary vein. 

52. Highest intercostal vein. 

53. Vertebral vein. 

54. Superficial cervical vein. From this point in the description of the veins of the 
upper extremity, it has not proved possible to identify every vessel with certainty. 
This is due partly to the considerable variability of even larger veins in this region and 
partly to obscurities in description and form of outline. In consequence, only the 
vessels which seem most certainly identified are noted. 

55. Cephalic vein. 

56. Anterior pectoral vein. 

57. Subscapular vein. 

58. Lateral thoracic vein. 

59. Subclavian, axillary, and brachial (in succession). 

60. Transverse cervical vein. 

61. Acromial and deltoid veins. 

62. Basilic vein. 

63. Median cubital vein. 

64. Median antibrachial vein. 

65. Accessory cephalic vein. 

66. The most medial of the dorsal metacarpal veins, from the dorsal venous network. 

67. Humeral circumflex and muscular rami. 

68. Deep brachial vein, with the radial nerve (Chap. V, note 71). 

69. Ulnar vein. 

70. Dorsal interosseous vein. 

71. Volar interosseous vein. 

72. Superficial volar arch. 

73. Radial vein. 


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74. Anastomosis with the superficial circulation, especially the median antibrachial 

75. The deep volar, with an offshoot to the thenar eminence. 

76. The venous anastomosis around the elbow joint, and the cutaneous and muscular 

77. Left suprarenal vein; the subsequent account differs from the modem in two 
main points: (a) Modem texts show the right suprarenal as a branch of the inferior 
vena cava; Vesalius just reverses this, (b) Modern texts place the left renal higher 
than the right; again this is reversed in the Epitome. 

78. Right suprarenal vein. 

79. The internal spermatic veins. 

80. Lumbar veins. 

81. The common iliac veins. 

82. Lateral sacral veins. 

83. Hypogastric vein. 

84. Gluteal veins. 

85. Internal pudendal and vesical veins. 

86. Uterine veins and venous plexuses of pelvic viscera. 

87. Obturator vein; Vesalius must have followed a branch to an anastomosis with 
some of the superficial veins of the thigh, perhaps an accessory saphenous. 

88. External iliac vein. 

89. Deep epigastric vein. 

90. Superficial external pudendal vein. 

91. Great saphenous vein. 

92. Superficial circumflex iliac vein. 

93. Femoral vein. 

94. Lateral circumflex femoral vein. 

95. Deep femoral vein, especially the medial femoral circumflex branch as the anas* 
tomotic channel. 

96. Peroneal vein. 

97. Genicular veins. 

98. Small saphenous vein. 

99. Posterior tibial vein. 

100. Anterior tibial vein. 

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O F THE organs which are created for rekindling the natural heat within 
us and for the restoration and nourishment of our spirits, the heart 
is considered by far the most important part of the agitative faculty. It is 
like a pine nut, compressed in front and behind, located with its base under 
the middle of the breastbone and its apex inclining sharply forward to the 
left side. The substance of the heart is fleshy, but like the substance of 
muscles, and is interwoven with a tougher, threefold type of fibers [1] 
provided with its own veins and arteries. 

The heart has two sinuses or ventricles [2}. One is located on the 
right side; this is broader and appears to be covered with a thinner and 
looser substance of the heart [3]. The orifice of the vena cava extends to 
this ventricle and is furnished with three membranes drawn inward [4]. 
Likewise, a vessel which is like an artery in form but performs the function 
of a vein [5] and hence is called the arterial vein proceeds from this ven¬ 
tricle; this vessel sends toward the orifice of the ventricle also three small 
membranes facing outward [6]. The other ventricle, surrounded by a 
special thick substance of the heart, lies on the left side. It, too, has two 
orifices, of which the lower, with two membranes closing inward {7], 
belongs to a certain vessel, an artery. While it is formed like a vein, this 
vessel holds the air and performs the function of an artery [8]; hence it 
is called the venous artery; this artery sends two membranes that dose in¬ 
ward to its own orifice. The higher orifice is dedicated to the beginning of 
the great artery, to which Nature has also given three membranes facing 
outward [9]. These ventrides are separated by a very thick septum adapted 
for distending and contracting and (like the ventrides of the heart) built 
up within of many pits of ample size [ 10}. 



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The entire heart is covered with a certain membranous involucrum, to 
which it is joined at no point [11]. This involucrum is much more ample 
than the heart and is moistened within by an aqueous humor. The lower 
region of the involucrum is attached on the outside to a transverse septum 
of no small breadth; on its two sides the involucrum is contained by the 
membranes interposed in the cavity of the thorax, supporting this involu' 
crum in order that the heart may be supported in position [12]. 

The lung fills the rest of the cavity of the thorax not occupied by the 
heart, the membranes just mentioned, and the descending esophagus. The 
lung adapts itself on all sides, as the liver does, to the shape of the parts 
lying close by; on both right and left sides it resembles the hoof of a cow 
or some other cloven-hoofed animal. Each lung is divided into two fibers or 
lobes [13] built up from many interweavings of vessels. The rough artery 
[14] is led down from the top of the throat (where also the tonsils and two 
other types of glands are located) to the thorax; it is partly cartilaginous so 
that the voice may be produced. In order that the lung may be expanded 
and relaxed and thus may assist breathing, it is partly membranous, filled 
here and there with branches. The arterial vein, proceeding from the right 
ventricle of the heart which prepares the blood familiar to the lung, offers 
the blood to the lung; it is distributed in an innumerable series to the latter. 
Similarly, the venous artery intertwines the lung with an abundant series. 
These vessels are surrounded by the spongy, soft, foamy, and quite pliable 
substance proper to the lung. A quite small thin tunic lies next to this sub 
stance, not hindering the dilatation and compression of the lung in any way; 
this tunic is always contiguous to the tunic which lines the ribs [15]. 

The lung causes a motion of the thorax dependent upon our wills; it 
dilates to produce a vacuum, and by virtue of this the air from outside 
ourselves passes along the uvula. When we breathe deeply, the air is 
attracted through the mouth as though into a bellows. A small part of the 
air seeks the brain through the foramina of the skull [16], while the re' 
mainder [17] enters the rough artery [trachea] by way of the upper 
throat and completely fills the cavity of the lung made by the latter's dilate 
don. The substance of the lung changes this air by force peculiar to itself, 
adapting the air to the use of the heart. This allows the best part of the 


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air to be taken up by the branches of the venous artery from the offshoots 
of the rough artery extending throughout so that, by the intervention of 
the former artery, the air may be carried to the left sinus of the heart, where 
it is going to perfect the material of the vital spirit.* 

The heart attracts this air and draws a large supply of blood from the 
right ventricle into the left ventricle. From the steamy vapor of that blood 
and from that air, by the inborn virtue of its own substance, the heart creates 
the spirit which the blood with a rushing flow distributes, thus accompanied 
and nourished, to the entire body through the great artery; the heart tempers 
the native heat of each part in the same way that the respiration restores the 
tinder of the innate heat to the heart. Thus the respiration and the pulse 
have the same use; by their rhythms the great artery of the heart is dilated 
and constricted. The heart therefore uses the air for making the vital 
spirit, and the fiery heat of the heart is tempered by the air. Whatever is sooty 
and unsuitable for production of the spirit is returned to the lung through 
the venous artery and, together with the air which had remained in the 
lung, is driven forth by the compression of the thorax; this is agreed by 
professors of dissection. To be sure, as the tireless heart by its own dilatation 
draws the blood into its right ventricle from the vena cava and part of the 
blood passes to the left ventricle, part of it in fact is appropriately prepared 
by the heart itself as suitable nourishment for the lung and is offered to 
the lung through the arterial vein by the contraction of the heart. The 
dilated heart takes air from the lung into the left ventricle, but when con' 
stricted it propels the vital spirit into the great artery with the rushing flow 
of the blood. In order that the rapid contraction of the heart may not bring 
harm to the vena cava and the venous artery, Nature has created the auricles 
as storerooms placed close to the heart [18}. 

We believe that four membranes guard the orifices of the cardiac vessels 
so that the heart’s labor may not be in vain [ 19}. The membranes guarding 
the orifices of the vena cava and of the venous artery prevent the blood 
from flowing back into the vena cava during the contraction of the heart 
and prevent the vital spirit from flowing back into the venous artery. Those 
membranes which guard the orifices of the arterial vein and of the great 

• . . . . spiritus vitalis idonea futurus materia. 


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artery prevent the blood carried to the lung and the vital spirit already sent 
forth from being regurgitated into the heart during its dilatation. 

The great artery grows forth from the heart, which it resembles. It sends 
forth two shoots which girdle the base of the heart and send branches down' 
ward through its substance [20}. The stem of the artery divides into two 
trunks a little above the heart [21}; the larger turns leftward to the spine, 
and branches [ 22} extend from it to the eight lower ribs on either side. As 
this trunk is borne downward below the septum, it sends offshoots to the 
latter [23}. From one root it sends shoots to the omentum, stomach, liver, 
gall bladder, colon, and finally to the spleen, it being accompanied by the 
branches of the portal vein [24}. Then another trunk here sends a root to 
the mesentery [25} and one to each kidney somewhat lower [26}; seminal 
arteries are sent forth from the anterior region of the trunk [27}. Then 
another branch lower down is sent to the mesentery [28}. The trunk, send' 
ing offshoots in its course to the lumbar vertebrae and the muscles lying on 
them [29}, arrives at the beginning of the os sacrum; the artery is set on 
the left side of the vena cava and thus creeps on more safely. It is divided 
into two parts in the same manner as the vena cava and makes an equal 
distribution with that vein to the very end of the foot [30}. However, no 
branch of this trunk of the great artery passes to the skin [31}. That part 
of this trunk which proceeds separately to the offshoot passing through the 
foramen of the pubic bone and joins the artery to it, descends from the 
umbilicus along the side of the bladder; this is regarded as belonging to 
the fetus [32}. 

The other trunk of the stem of the great artery goes upward [33}; it 
soon sends from its left side a branch extending obliquely to the highest rib 
on this side [34}. From this branch there first goes an offshoot to the upper 
ribs [35}, and next another offshoot to die transverse processes of the cervi' 
cal vertebrae [36}, which finally disappears in the dural membrane of the 
brain; still another offshoot passes along the left side of the breastbone, is 
always placed deeply, and extends to the umbilicus [37}. Where the main 
branch passes over the cavity of the thorax, it sends an offshoot to the 
muscles which occupy the posterior region of the neck [38}. For the rest, 
just as the axillary vein is distributed to the very ends of the fingers (if you 


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will except those branches of the vein which reach the skin), so may you 
understand the arterial branches, which lie only deeply covered here [39]. 

A sizable portion of the trunk being described ascends to the root of the 
neck and is divided into two unequal branches [40]. The left and more 
slender one constitutes the carotid artery of the left side. The right one sends 
an offshoot from its right side to the first rib [41], where the offshoot com' 
pletely disappears in the same way in which that former branch of the trunk 
was said to reach obliquely to the first rib of the left side. The remainder of 
the right branch forms the carotid artery of this side; like the one on the 
left, it seeks the upper part of the throat along the side of the rough artery. 
Deeply into the face it sends a branch which becomes absorbed in the skin 
of the temples up to the vertex [42]. The artery itself sends offshoots to 
the larynx, tongue, and the threefold types of glands lying here [43]; it 
then enters the skull* and, divided into two offshoots, sends the lesser to 
disappear in the first or right sinus of the dural membrane [44]. The larger 
offshoot, without an accompanying vein, disappears into the skull through 
a foramen of its own, and here offshoots soon separate from it and go to the 
side of the dura [45]. Another offshoot hastens through a peculiar perfora' 
tion to the cavity of the nostrils toward the end of the nose [46]. But the 
offshoot itself, not spread out over the base of the skull and not distributed 
into any intertwining network, passes forward and sends a branch to the 
eye with the second pair of nerves of the brain [47]; then it ascends, per' 
forating the dural membrane. Here, part of it disappears into the thin mem' 
brane [48]; part creeps into the right ventricle of the cerebrum and forms 
a plexus laid down in this ventricle and compared to the outermost covering 
of the fetus [49]. The offshoot brings the vital spirit to the brain so that, 
as I shall now say, the animal spirit may be prepared by the function of 
the brain. 

* Cf. Fabrica III, xiv, Tcrtia Artcriac Scries (marginal rubric). 


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T HIS chapter deals with the structure and function of the cardiorespiratory system 
and with the distribution of the arteries. 

The heart is described as a two-chambered organ; the atria are not distinguished 
from the great veins which enter them. The right and left ventricles are the primary 
chambers of the heart, into which the great veins open. The atrioventricular valves 
(tricuspid on the right, bicuspid on the left) are placed between the vena cava and 
the pulmonary veins on the one hand, and the right and left ventricles (respectively) 
on the other. The auricles (auricular appendages) are chambers close to the heart, 
serving the function of taking up the shock of systole and thereby protecting the 
great veins. The right and left ventricles have separate outlets, which are the pul¬ 
monary artery (arterial vein) and aorta, respectively. The intrinsic structure of the 
heart is described as having a muscular wall, thicker on the left than the right, and a 
septum which shows pits (which, in the Fabrica , are denied to be septal perforations 
or foramina of any degree of importance). The heart is surrounded by a pericardial 
sac in which fluid is found. The lung is a spongy, bilobate structure which assumes 
the shape of the space it occupies. It is covered with a pleural membrane, and its sub¬ 
stance is made up of the complex intertwining of many branches of the pulmonary 
artery, pulmonary veins, and bronchi. 

The slight hesitance with which Vesalius approaches the question of the preparation 
and circulation of blood reflects the beginning of the dissatisfaction with Aristotelian 
and Galenic physiology which was appearing in the scientific world. At the time of 
this publication, Vesalius’ ill-fated contemporary and former fellow student, Michael 
Servetus, was setting down his ideas on the circulation through the lungs. The cru¬ 
cial points which Vesalius handles diffidently were, perhaps, already taking form in 
Servetus’ mind during the year which the two spent in Guenther’s laboratory in Paris 
(1532), and the manuscript of Christianismi Restitutio, in which the passage con¬ 
cerning pulmonary circulation appeared, was written before 1546. At about the same 
time, Canano of Ferrara informed Vesalius of the discovery of valves in the veins; 
their significance was missed by Vesalius and Fallopius; the latter probably observed 
them and communicated the information to his student, Hieronymus Fabridus. (Cf. 
Fabritius, De Venarum ostiolis ; translated by K. J. Franklin, D.M. Springfield, HI.: 
Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, 1933.) In 1598 the English student, William Harvey, 
entered Padua and came under the influence of Fabridus; through such a chain of 
groping uncertainty, teacher may have passed to student the seed of the idea which 
flowered in 1616 as a report on the circulation of blood—“the greatest discovery in 
the annals of medicine’’ (Fulton). 

The cardiorespiratory physiology of Vesalius is dependent on the idea of the three¬ 
fold “spirit” (Gr., pneuma) in man, assodated with the three parts of the soul (see 
Chap. Ill, general interpretation). The pneuma physicon, or natural spirit, is that 
assodated with the lowest or vegetative side of man: it is a vapor formed in the liver 
and carried with the humors along the veins. The pneuma zoticon , or vital spirit, is 


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produced in the heart, the seat of the passions. The source and character of the 
pneuma psychicon, animal spirit, will be examined in connection with Chapter V. 

According to Vesalius, the lung expands by activity of the thorax comparable to a 
bellows, and air rushes in. While some inspired air passes to the cerebrum by way 
of perforations in the skull, much of it goes through the trachea to the lung. The 
lung acts on this air and a part of it passes by way of the pulmonary vein to the left 
ventricle, where the vital spirit is prepared through the interaction of the air and the 
natural'spirit-bearing blood from the liver; the nonusable part of the air drawn by 
diastole to the left ventricle returns to the lung during systole by the same route it 
came and is expelled by thoracic compression in expiration. The blood, now bearing 
vital spirit, also leaves the left ventricle during systole and passes through the aorta; 
that which reaches the brain is transformed to animal spirit. 

It is in getting blood to the left ventricle that the discussion enco un ter s the greatest ' 
difficulty; it is so great, in fact, that Vesalius omits any attempt at explanation in the 
Epitome. The only account given here of the movement of blood which has entered 
the right heart states that a part of it is sent, in systole, through the pulmonary artery 
for the nourishment of the lung substance. An explanation is found in the Fabrics 
where we are informed that air is drawn from the lungs through the pulmonary vein 
by the left ventricle, whence it “together with the blood which soaks plentifully 
through the septum from the right ventricle into the left may be assigned to the great 
artery (the aorta) and so to the whole body.” Later, in denying the existence of per' 
forations in the interventricular septum, he says, “We are driven to wonder at the 
handiwork of the Almighty, by means of which the blood sweats from the right into 
the left ventricle through passages which escape human vision.” 

Several excellent references relating to the development of ideas on the relationship 
between heart and lungs may be found in Sir M. Foster, Lectures on the History of 
Physiology (1901), from whose first lecture the ex tr act s from the Fabrica are taken; 
in J. F. Fulton’s Selected Readings in the History of Physiology (1930), especially 
Chapter H; and in Arturo Castiglioni’s History of Medicine (1941), where the pneuma 
is described (p. 221). See also Samuel W. Lambert, “A Reading from Vesalius and 
the Physiology of Vesalius,” Bull. ?{ew Tor\ Academy Med. (1936), voL 12, pp. 

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1 UNDERSTANDING of what Vesalius meant by the “threefold type" men- 
♦ tioned in Chapters II and III and twice in the present chapter must await annota¬ 
tion of the corresponding sections of the Fabrica. 

2. The atria are not considered as parts of the heart; the right atrium was, to Vesalius, 
a part of the vena cava with “an opening wider than the circular width of the vena 
cava elsewhere" (see Chap. Ill, p. 45 and note 47); consistent with tins, the left atrium 
is an expansion of the pulmonary vein. The auricles correspond to the auricular append' 
ages of modem terminology. 

3. The wall of the right ventricle is the thinner. 

4. Tricuspid valve: “drawn" inward means “directed." 

5. That is, carries venous blood (to the lungs); pulmonary artery. See the Leake trans' 
lation of Harvey’s De Motu Cordis, footnote 7 to the introductory section. 

6. Pulmonary valve. 

7. Mitral (bicuspid) valve. 

8. That is, carries arterial blood; pulmonary vein. Actually the left atrium; see note 
2 above. 

9. Aorta and aortic valve. 

10. The spaces between the trabeculae cameae. 

11. Parietal pericardium. 

12. The transverse septum is the diaphragm; the lateral membranes probably indi' 
cate mediastinal pleura. 

13. The three lobes of the right lung are not recognized. 

14. Trachea: see Chap. I, note 21. 

15. In order, the visceral and parietal pleurae. 

16. For the fate of the “small part of the air" see Chap. V, p. 69. 

17. For this and following, see general interpretation to this chapter. 

18. The auricles (indicating the auricular appendages) are thought to form a kind 
of recoil mechanism or shock absorber. 

19. That is, to prevent regurgitation and retrograde blood flow. 

20. Right and left coronary arteries. 

21. The innominate artery and (larger) arch of the aorta. See note 33 below. 

22. Intercostal arteries (usually nine pairs). 

23. Superior and inferior phrenic arteries. 


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24. The celiac artery, with left gastric, hepatic, and lienal (splenic) arteries and their 

25. Superior mesenteric artery. 

26. Renal arteries. 

27. Internal spermatic (or ovarian) arteries. 

28. Inferior mesenteric artery. 

29. Lumbar arteries. 

30. Compare this sentence with statements in modem texts (such as Morris, p. 729) 
that "veins accompany the arteries, and have practically the same relations as those 
vessels.” This, together with the brevity of the present chapter compared with the 
foregoing chapter on veins, affords excellent illustration of the reversal of emphasis on 
blood vessels which resulted from the discovery of the circulation of blood. 

31. Except for the subcutaneous venous system, the arteries of the extremities cor- 
respond to the veins; the superficial veins have no arteriae comitantes. 

32. The hypogastric artery, which has the obturator as a branch, is much larger in 
the fetus, and at birth only its pelvic portion is left; the remainder, "which descends 
from the umbilicus,” is the obliterated hypogastric artery, or lateral umbilical liga¬ 
ment (a fibrous cord). 

33. The following text appears confused at first; examination of a Vesalian plate 
of the arterial system (such as may be found preceding p. 65 in I cones Anatomicae, 
Tabulae Libri Tertii) will establish the point of view from which the description pro¬ 

ceeds. Essentially it is as follows: the arch of the aorta and its descending portions 
have been described as the larger of the two trunks of the stem of the great artery 
which comes from the heart. The stem is considered to include the ascending aorta and 
that portion of the arch which gives rise to the great vessels of the head and upper 



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extremities; the aorta, as already described, starts at the point where the left sub¬ 
clavian is sent forth. Consequently the lesser of the two trunks, which is now to be 
described, includes not only the innominate artery but also the left common carotid 
and subclavian arteries and that portion of the aortic arch from which they arise. The 
adjacent diagram, adapted from the plate referred to, may aid here. If this concept 
of the aorta and its branches requires any defense, Morris (be. cit., p. 607), may be 
cited: ‘"The innominate and left carotid arise close together—indeed, so close that, 
when seen from the interior of the aorta, the left subclavian arises a short distance 
beyond the left carotid.” 

34. Left subclavian artery. 

35. Superior intercostal artery. 

36. Vertebral artery. 

37. Internal mammary artery. 

38. Deep cervical artery. 

39. See note 31 above. 

40. The two common carotids; there is no named equivalent to the “sizable portion 
of the trunk” which includes the innominate artery and a portion of the aortic arch. 

41. Right subclavian artery. 

42. Not only the superficial temporal but the major part of the external carotid 

43. Superior thyroid and its laryngeal rami, lingual, and internal maxillary arteries. 
While positive identification of the “threefold types of glands” cannot be made from 
the Epitome , inspection of Fabrica VI, v, suggests that the first type is the thyroid 
gland, the second is the palatine tonsils, and the third a group of glands which includes 
the cervical lymph glands and all of the major salivary glands. There is also a refer¬ 
ence to what may be the thymus. 

44. From this point the description is confusing and inadequate. The present vessel 
may be the anterior meningeal artery. 

45. Middle meningeal artery. 

46. Ethmoidal arteries (?). 

47. Ophthalmic artery. 

48. The cerebral arteries (anterior and middle). The arterial circle at the base of the 
brain is not described. 

49. Choroidal artery and choroid plexus (compared to the chorion). 


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T HE brain, the seat of the animal and the principal faculty, lies in the 
skull and admirably fits the form of the cavity in the upper region of 
the head which it occupies throughout its length. Anteroposteriorly it is 
divided into right and left parts but is continuous at its base in the mid'line. 
Here is the beginning of the dorsal medulla [oblongata et spinalis], entirely 
different from the medulla [marrow} of the bones. Rather less than a tenth 
of the brain [1} and completely beneath it in its posterior aspect, the cere' 
bellum is joined to the dorsal medulla. The cerebellum extends backward no 
farther than does the brain itself. 

A tough membrane [2] surrounds all these parts of the brain, closely 
lining the skull and sending fibers through its sutures which end in 
the skull's own involucrum [3]. This membrane is separated only far 
enough from the thin membrane of the brain that it may not hinder the 
motions of the latter’s vessels [4}. It sends a process between the right and 
left parts of the brain [5} and likewise another between the superior region 
of the cerebellum and that aspect of the cerebrum which rests upon the 
cerebellum [6]. Performing the service of veins and arteries at the same 
time and distributing a varied series of vessels to the thin membrane of the 
brain, four special sinuses lie in this membrane [7}. The substance of die 
brain, which is continuous, white, and intertwined by no veins, is covered 
over very intimately by this thin membrane [8}. Weaving here and there 
through the convolutions of the cerebrum, which are very much like the 
windings of the intestines [9], it contains the cerebral vessels. 

The cerebrum is furnished with three outstanding and spacious cavities 
or ventricles; of these, one is located in the length of the right part of the 


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cerebrum. It bends back from the posterior portion through the substance 
of the cerebrum and is carried to the middle of the base of the brain [10]. 
The second is located in the left part of the cerebrum in a similar fashion. 
Where they face each other inwardly, they are separated in the upper 
region by a certain thin substance of the cerebrum [11]; this is called the 
septum and is continued superiorly to that part of the cerebrum which, 
because it is somewhat harder and more whitish than the other parts of the 
brain lying on the surface, is called the corpus callosum [12]. The lower 
region of the septum is joined to, and continuous with, that part of the 
cerebrum which is formed like an arch or a tortoise shell (or vault) [13]. 
It proceeds with a broad base [14] on both sides from the posterior region 
of the two first ventricles of the cerebrum; gradually passing forward, it 
fuses at an acute angle and in its inferior aspect overhangs the cavity to be 
discussed, like the hollow of an arch. 

The lower regions of the ventricles mentioned are not partitioned from 
each other by the septum but come together in a common sinus [15] lying 
under the body formed like an arch; this space extends directly down' 
ward as a prominent channel through the substance of the cerebrum into a 
funnel or basin formed by a thin membrane of that shape [ 16]. The phlegm 
of the brain descends through this channel; it is distilled by a quadrate gland 
lying on the bone shaped like a wedge [17] and thence flows down to the 
palate and the broad part of the nostrils through notable perforations, which, 
however, are not like the holes of a sponge [18]. This present cavity, 
common to both right and left ventricles, is the third ventricle of the brain. 
It ends posteriorly in a canal [19] which reaches through the bodies of the 
brain which are not unlike the nates and the testes [20] to the fourth ven-* 
tride. The latter is common to the cerebellum and the beginning of the 
dorsal medulla; it is furnished in its anterior and posterior region with a 
process of the cerebellum which, because of its windings, we compare to a 
worm bom in wood [21]. 

The gaze of the dissector encounters no peculiar body in this fourth 
ventricle such as may be found in the three former ventricles [22]. For in 
the right ventricle (as also in the left), a rather noteworthy branch of the 
soporal artery [23] extends through its inferior and posterior region, destined 


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to form a plexus or network which we compare to the outermost covering 
of the fetus [ 24]. It is constituted of that branch of the artery and a portion 
of its vein which fashions a gland shaped like a pine nut [25] and supported 
by the testes of the overlying cerebrum. It is led through the third ventricle 
of the cerebrum from the end of the fourth sinus of the dural membrane 
[26], which extends along the length of the cerebellum. From that sinus, 
as from a press [27], it receives the content of the vein and the artery. Then 
it divides into two portions, of which one extends to the right, the other 
to the left, ventricle, and with the branches of the arteries passing to the 
same place it forms the plexus just mentioned in each ventricle. 

From the vital spirit adapted in this plexus to the functions of the brain* 
and from the air which we draw to the ventricles of the brain when we 
breathe in, the inborn force of the brain’s substance creates the animal 
spirit, of which the brain makes use partly for the functions of the chief 
portion of the mind. Part of it the brain transmits by means of the nerves 
growing forth from itself [28] to the organs which stand in need of the 
animal spirit. (These are chiefly the instruments of the sense and of voluntary 
movement [29].) A not inconsiderable part of the animal spirit spreads from 
the third ventricle under the testes of the brain into the ventricle common 
to the cerebellum and the dorsal medulla. This is subsequently distributed to 
all the nerves drawing their origin from the dorsal medulla [ 30]. 

From the middle of the base of the brain a long, rounded process arises on 
either side and is led along the base of the brain anteriorly; it lies on the 
corresponding sinus of the eighth bone of the skull and is the organ of smell. 
Since it does not pass from the cavity of the skull, it has not been given the 
name of a nerve by professors of dissection [31]. 

The first of the seven pairs of nerves which are ascribed to the brain has 
its origin from the base of the brain a little behind the process corresponding 
to the substance of nerves, of which mention has just been made. It consti¬ 
tutes the optic nerves, which end in the tunic of the eye similar to a net in 
appearance [32]. The eye has a crystalline humor in its center, the anterior 
region of which is covered by a tunic corresponding to the very thinnest 
membrane of an onion [33]. The posterior region of this humor is held in 
by a vitreous humor, around the posterior aspect of which runs an involucrum 


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corresponding to the substance of the brain and in which the substance of 
the visual nerve is dissipated [32]. The thin membrane of the brain covers 
up the visual nerve and extends to a tunic very similar to the skin of a grape 

[34] . Although it completely surrounds the eye, it is seen to be perforated in its 
anterior region with an opening which we call die pupil. The dural membrane 
of the brain surrounds the visual nerve and ends in the hard tunic of the eye 

[35] , which covers up the eye completely; in the anterior region of the eye 
it is transparent in the manner of horn [36]. This is circumscribed by the 
iris, the larger circle of the eye, to which clings the white of the eye or the 
tunic growing in the anterior region of the eye. Between this cornea and 
the anterior region of the crystalline humor is the aqueous humor, which is 
separated from the vitreous by a certain thin tunic bearing cilia which is 
joined in circular fashion to the crystalline humor; this tunic arises from the 
uvea [37], 

The second pair of nerves serves for moving the muscles of the eye [38]. 
The third pair grows out on either side with two roots separate from each 
other [39]; it sends the lesser root by certain litde openings to the skin of 
the forehead [40], to the upper jaw and upper lip, to the breadth of the 
nostrils [41], and to the muscles which raise the lower jaw [42]. The larger 
root is sent to the tongue; by the function of this root the tongue is made 
the instrument of taste [43]. Also, from this root a branch twisted inward 
in the manner of a tendril is sent to the muscles just mentioned, and another 
branch to the upper teeth [44], another to the lower jaw and to the teeth 
fixed in it, and finally to the lower lip [45]. 

The fourth pair of nerves ends in the covering of the palate [46]. The 
fifth pair proceeds with a double root also [47], as does the third pair, and 
distributes the lesser root to the muscles which raise the lower jaw [48] but 
sends the thicker root to the organ of hearing [49]; from this root it also 
sends two offshoots extending through different openings to the muscles just 

The sixth pair [50] is increased by a portion of the seventh pair beyond 
the little branches sent out from itself to certain muscles in the neck and to 
the larynx [51]. Near the top of the breastbone it sends certain offshoots 
to the muscles issuing thence [52]. To the roots of the ribs it sends down a 


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branch [53] which is well distributed to the organs which have charge of 
making the blood. Thus far, each nerve of the sixth pair is equally distrib' 
uted. The right nerve separately turns back a portion of itself to the artery 
which extends to the right arm, from which the nerve is carried up along 
the right side of the rough artery and proceeds to the larynx; for this reason 
it is called the recurrent nerve [54]. The remaining part descends from this 
right nerve and sends little branches to die right part of the lung and to the 
covering of the heart [55]; this part finally joins the esophagus after passing 
through the septum and giving many offshoots to the left side of the superior 
orifice of the stomach [56]. The left nerve turns back those portions of itself 
which constitute the recurrent nerve of the left side to the trunk of the great 
artery extending to the back [57]. From die nerve of this side a slender 
offshoot belonging to the heart is distributed [58]; that which remains of it 
is interwoven in the right side of the superior orifice of the stomach and 
sends a little branch as far as the liver along the upper part of the stomach. 
The seventh pair, in addition to the fact that it increases the sixth pair con' 
siderably, ends especially in the muscles of the larynx and the tongue [59]. 

The nerves which draw their origin from the dorsal medulla contained 
in the vertebrae include thirty pairs [60]. Of these, seven are dedicated to 
the cervical vertebrae, twelve to the thoracic vertebrae, five to the lumbar 
vertebrae, six to the os sacrum; no nerve, however, springs from the coccyx. 
The pairs which begin to descend from the cervical vertebrae are distributed 
to the muscles which rise very close to these pairs; one nerve, belonging to 
the transverse septum, is formed on either side from the fourth, fifth, and 
sixth offshoots of the pairs [61]. Then from the fifth, sixth, seventh, and 
next from the eighth and ninth, or from the first and second pairs of the 
thorax, a varied plexus of nerves arises [62] from which six nerves sprout 
forth into the arm, in addition to various offshoots dispersed to the hollow 
and to the gibbous part of the scapula. 

The first nerve which seeks the arm [63] sends from its own offshoots to 
the muscle which raises the arm a very slender shoot to the skin covering the 
external region of the arm. The second nerve enters the arm through 
the ayilla [64]; it sends little branches to the first muscle of those which 
flex the elbow. It imparts a notable portion of itself [65] to the third nerve 


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which approaches the arm, and itself [66], hastening to the elbow, sends a 
branch to the first muscle which leads the radius in supination; it runs under 
the skin and, divided into various offshoots, it intermingles with the skin of 
the superior and internal region of the forearm as far as the hand [67]. The 
third nerve also descends through the axilla [68]; it sends little branches 
to the skin of the anterior region of the arm. Increased by a portion of the 
second nerve and communicating an offshoot to the posterior muscle of 
those which flex the elbow, it hastens to the forearm through the anterior 
aspect of the inner tubercle of the humerus [69]. Together with the fifth 
nerve, it sends shoots to the muscles which draw their origin hence; extend' 
ing along the radius and led into the palm of the hand, it sends two off' 
shoots to the internal aspect of the thumb, the same number also to the 
index finger, and one offshoot only to the external side of the inner [palmar] 
region of the middle finger; not infrequently, however, it offers two little 
branches to the middle finger and one to the ring finger [70]. The fourth 
nerve of the arm is much thicker than the rest [71]; sending branches to 
the muscles which extend the elbow, it enters through the armpit. First 
sending two offshoots to the skin [72], it hastens along the posterior aspect 
of the arm to the external tubercle of the humerus. The nerve placed at this 
external region of the elbow joint distributes a branch to the skin of the 
external region of the forearm as far as the wrist [73], and soon dividing 
into two trunks [74], it gives offshoots to the muscles growing forth from 
the external tubercle of the humerus. To the ulna it extends one trunk [75]; 
from this trunk little branches are distributed to the muscles arising from 
the external region of the ulna; the trunk itself ends near the root of the 
wrist. The upper trunk [76] reaches to the radius; except for the slender 
shoots which it offers to the overlying muscles, it seeks the wrist and imparts 
two little branches to the external region of the thumb, two likewise to the 
external region of the index finger, and one to the internal side of the middle 
finger. The fifth nerve [77] lies hidden in the armpit, nearest to the artery 
of the arm. It sends out no offshoots from itself to the arm. It extends into 
the forearm along the posterior region of the internal tubercle of the hu' 
merus [78] and, together with the third nerve, communicates branches also 
to the muscles growing forth here. It runs along the ulna to the wrist, send' 


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ing out in the middle of its course a branch which dwindles by giving off 
two shoots to the exterior [dorsal] region of the little finger, two likewise to 
the same region of the ring finger, and one shoot to the external side of the 
exterior region of the middle finger [79]. Whatever portion of the fifth 
nerve reaches the internal region of the wrist offers small branches to the 
interior [palmar] region of the little finger as well as of the ring and middle 
fingers [80]. The sixth nerve is especially slender [81]; it is led along the 
internal aspect of the arm under the skin, and in its progress it extends some 
little branches to the skin. It reaches to the forearm, in the skin of which 
it is disseminated with numerous shoots along the ulna as far as the wrist. 

From the nerves which spring forth from the thoracic vertebrae, with the 
exception of branches which are stretched backward to the spines of the 
vertebrae and hence to the muscles which draw their origin from them [82], 
single intervals of the ribs appropriate to themselves single branches stretch' 
ing in circular fashion to the middle of the chest and abdomen and dispers¬ 
ing shoots to the muscles laid down in the thorax, to the muscles of die 
abdomen, and finally to the skin. Small portions are distributed to these 
intervals from the intercostal nerves, which augment the offshoots of the 
sixth pair of nerves of the brain extending to the roots of the ribs [83]. 

The distribution of the nerves proceeding from the lumbar vertebrae cor¬ 
responds in large part to the nerves of the thorax, for the former send 
branches backward and these ascend along the ilia in a circular fashion to 
the middle of the abdomen, furnishing litde branches to the contiguous 
muscles and to the skin. From the first pair of these [84], very small offshoots 
extend to the testes with the seminal arteries. The nerves which proceed to 
the thigh [85] take their origin from the four lowest pairs, although the 
greatest nerve [86] of all arises from the first four pairs, of the nerves of 
the os sacrum. The first pair of sacral nerves, like those of the thoracic and the 
lumbar region, descends from the vertebrae. The five lowest pairs of the 
os sacrum do not spring from the sides but issue forth with one root ante¬ 
riorly and another root posteriorly [87]; the posterior roots are dispersed 
to the muscles which attach to the bones of the sacrum and ilium and to the 
skin [88]. The anterior branch of the first pair, together with the anterior 
roots of the three succeeding pairs, constitutes the [sciatic] nerve just men- 


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tioned. The roots of the lowest pairs disappear into the bladder, anus, and 
penis, or in women into the neck of the uterus [vagina] and the hillocks of 
the pudenda [89]. 

Of the four nerves which proceed to the thigh, the first is led along the 
sixth muscle which moves the femur and sends a branch into the external 
aspect of the skin of the thigh [90]; it disappears in the muscles which 
occupy the external side of the femur. The second enters the thigh along 
with the larger vein and artery of the thigh [91]; it soon sends a branch 
through the internal aspect of the thigh, the knee, and the leg as far as the 
foot and the ends of the toes. It descends under the skin, together with a vein 
which has been mentioned as creeping forward here, and sends little branches 
here and there [92], That which is left of the second nerve ends in the 
muscles covering the anterior region of the femur. The third nerve creeps 
through the foramen of the pubic bone and offers branches to the muscles 
which occupy it [93], Distributed here and there, it sends an offshoot to 
the internal aspect of the skin of the thigh. The rest of that nerve is divided 
and sent to the muscles located in the internal region of the thigh. The 
fourth nerve [94] is easily the thickest of all the nerves of the body which 
are composed of more than one nerve; it is led into the posterior part of the 
thigh where the bone of the coxendix splits away from the sacrum. To the 
posterior aspect of the skin of the thigh, it sends a branch which presently 
ends a little below the middle of the femur [95]. Another branch propagated 
from the fourth nerve is offered to the lower region [96]. It also sends off' 
shoots to the muscles arising from the lowest posterior region of the coxen- 
dix bone [97], as also to the muscles which arise from the inferior heads of 
the femur. Then in the popliteal region it is divided into two trunks. The 
more slender outer one is carried to the fibula [98], from which a branch 
creeps to the external aspect of the skin of the leg as far as the little toe. 
Another branch is sent to the anterior aspect of the skin of the leg. The 
rest of that trunk extends to the fibula, where lies the origin of the seventh 
and eighth muscles of those which move the foot. The larger inner trunk 
[99] gives off a branch into the internal aspect of the skin of the leg and 
likewise to the skin of the calf as far as the heel. The trunk itself is hidden 
in the muscles which form the calf and sends a branch along the membranous 


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ligament where the fibula is joined to the tibia [100]. The branch is here 
hidden in the muscles which occupy the anterior region of the leg; finally it 
reaches the upper part of the foot and is hidden there in the toes. The greater 
portion of that larger trunk [101] runs down along the posterior part of the 
leg and sends some offshoots here and there to the muscles. It approaches the 
lower part of the foot between the heel and the inner malleolus; it offers 
quite small offshoots to the muscles lying therein and communicates two 
offshoots to the inferior aspect of each of the toes. 

In this manner, indeed, the great Creator of things has fashioned our body 
not only that it may live but that it may, subject to corruption, live properly. 
But what means he has fashioned for the continuation of our species and 
how he has joined them with the organs of nutrition far from the seat of 
the senses and of the reason [102], I shall now relate below, summarily and 
in so far as this enumeration of the parts of the human fabric admits. 

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GENERAL interpretation 

T HE brain, the source of activity and the seat of consciousness, is seated in the 
spherical, “most perfectly formed” portion of the body, the head. In addition to its 
protection within the skull, it is surrounded by membranes, the outer tough and the 
inner thin and more fragile. These membranes are not named by Vesalius but cor' 
respond to our “dura mater” and “piarachnoid.” These terms may be referred to a 
philosophic concept employed by the Arabic anatomists: the membranes which cover 
a given structure are those in which the structure was originally formed. Our modem 
terminology utilizes this in naming the layers of the uterine wall “endometrium” and 
“myometrium”; both the term “mater” and the combining form “metrium” are cog' 
nates of our word “mother” and have equivalent value in the Arabic concept; the 
idea was carried across with the translation of the Arabic term. Mondino does not 
use the idea, although the names are employed; he does point out the function of the 
pia mater in nourishing the brain substance. It is noteworthy that Vesalius not only 
omits these terms but also avoids using the term “involucrum,” which carries some' 
what the opposite meaning of a membrane which has been derived from the struc' 
ture it encloses. 

Among the products of the brain’s activity is phlegm, one of the four humors. It 
passes down the infundibular (“funnehshaped”) recess of the third ventricle and is 
“instilled” by the pituitary gland, passing thence to the palate and nostrils through 
inadequately described foramina. 

The circulation of the brain is somewhat confused; the arterial circle is not rec' 
ognized, and the dural sinuses perform both arterial and venous functions for the brain 
substance. The carotid artery sends a branch to make up the choroid plexus. This 
structure is remarked especially in the two lateral ventricles and the third ventricle 
but not the fourth ventricle (all of which spaces in the brain are described in a 
manner conformable with modern anatomy; this is not the case in the work of Mon' 
dino). The choroid plexus is the site in which the vital spirit, carried in the arterial 
blood from the heart, is turned into animal spirit (pneuma psychicon ), which is 
adapted to nervous function. This is accomplished by interaction with that part of the 
inspired air which has entered the cranium (see Chap. IV, general interpretation) and 
has reached the ventricles. The animal spirit thus created is distributed along the 
cranial nerves. 

The seven cranial nerves correspond closely to those of Galen and Mondino. The 
only one in which data are lacking for a fairly positive identification is the fourth. 
It is interesting to observe here a discrepancy in the text of Mondino. In his section 
“Of the Nerves Arising in the Brain,” he describes the fourth nerve as our “vagus” 
(the key to the identification is the presence of the nervi reversivi or recurrent laryn' 
geal); the sixth pair “go to the palate to give it feeling.” Yet earlier, in treating “Of the 
Trachea Arteria,” the vagus is enumerated as the sixth nerve. Vesalius says, of the 
fourth nerve, only that it “ends in the covering of the palate.” Singer, in annotating his 
translation of Mondino, does not follow the confused listing of the section on cranial nerves. 


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In the comparative table below, the fourth and sixth nerves of Vesalius are not pre* 
sented as positive and with complete identification; the description in the Epitome is 
inadequate for this purpose. The portion ascribed to Galen is taken from Charles 
Singer’s The Evolution of Anatomy (1925), page 56; that of Mondino is from the same 
author’s translation and annotation (note 97) of the “Anathomia,” found in M onumenta 
Medica, Vdlume II, Part I (1925); this text was also quoted in the preceding paragraph. 
The development of anatomical thinking on the subject of the cranial nerves from Galen 
through Mondino and Vesalius to modern times will be made apparent at a glance from 
this table. 







I. Olfactory 

Not regarded as 

Not regarded 

Not regarded as separate 

separate nerves 

as separate 



II. Optic 

“The soft nerves of 

First pair 

First pair 

the eyes’’ 

III. Oculomotor 

“The nerves moving 

Second pair 

Second pair 

both eyes’’ 

IV. Trochlear 

Not described 

Not mentioned 

Included with “second 


“Third pair of nerves’’ 

Third pair 

Third pair, which has 

V. Trigeminal h 

two roots 

“Fourth pair of nerves’’ 

Fourth pair 

Fourth pair 

VI. Abducens 

United with second 

Not mentioned 

Included with second 



VII. Facial 

►“Fifth pair of nerves’’ 

Fifth pair 

Fifth pair 

VIII. Auditory 

IX. Glossopha' - 



Sixth pair; also includes 

X. Vagus 

►“Sixth pair of nerves’’ 

Sixth pair < 

sympathetic trunk 
(note 83) with this 

XI. Spinal ac' 

cranial nerve 

cessory , 

XII. Hypoglossal 

“Seventh pair of 

Seventh pair 

Seventh pair 


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1 THE average weight of the cerebellum is 140 gm; average weight of the encephalon 
♦ is slightly less than 1,400 gm, although varying from 1,100 to 1,700 gm. 

2. The dura mater. 

3. In the cranial vault the endocranium (outer layer of the dura, which is here separable 
into two layers) is continuous through the sutures with the pericranium (periosteum, 
the “skull's own involucrum"). 

4. The subdural space is only a potential one. 

5. The falx cerebri. 

6. The tentorium cerebelli. 

7. Just which dural sinuses are meant is not clear; probably we are dealing with the 
right and left transverse sinuses, the superior sagittal, and the straight sinus (and possibly 
in this numerical order). Some readers may need to be reminded that the term “sinus" 
in anatomy is used in many different senses and does not necessarily refer to the accessory 
nasal air cavities. Here the meaning is an intracranial space filled with venous blood. 
The reference to veins and arteries is more likely the prevailing concept of blood circular 
tion; in only one place is a major artery (the internal carotid) included within the walls 
of a sinus (the cavernous). 

8. The piarachnoid. 

9. And serving much the same purpose—that of obtaining an increased area within a 
limited space. 

10. The right lateral ventricle, with its inferior horn. 

11. The septum lucidum. 

12. The “callous body." By this name a sharp distinction is made between the texture 
of this white fiber tract and the gray cellular tissue composing the cortex. 

13. The fornix; its old name (corresponding to “tortoise shell") was testudo cerebri; 
the parenthetic “vault" is an alternative translation. 

14. Like a man standing with a broad base; legs wide apart and diverging from the 

15. The third ventricle. 

16. The infundibular recess. 

17. The pituitary gland and the sphenoid bone ( pituita , “phlegm"). 

18. Through perforations in the sphenoid, not through the lamina cribrosa ethmoidalis; 
see Chap. I, note 9. 

19. The aqueduct of Sylvius. 


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20. Ts^ates et testes , the superior and inferior colliculi (corpora quadrigemina; from a 
fancied resemblance to the appearance of the buttocks and scrotum of a man bent over, 
seen from the posterior aspect. It is appropriate here to remember that much of the 
nomenclature of the brain was established at a time when brains were not subjected 
to the action of a hardening solution such as formalin. The soft mass assumed shapes 
which might lend themselves to comparisons not so obvious in the firmer brains with 
which the present-day dissector is more familiar; hence the cornu Ammonis, calamus 
scriptorius, hippocampus, obex, clava, and many others. This comment is not to dis¬ 
parage the terms, for the similarities can be observed in formalinized tissue, but to 
emphasize that there may have been even more stimulus to the imagination of the 
early dissector. The nates et testes comparison is by no means inept. 

21. The vermis of the cerebellum; a “worm born in wood'’ is probably a grub, the 
larval form of a beetle. 

22. The amount of choroid plexus in the fourth ventricle is small. 

23. Soporal artery: the artery of sleep (the internal carotid). Carotid is derived from 
xapog, “stupor,” thought to be produced by pressing on the carotids. Professor J. B. de 
C. M. Saunders suspects an even older, onomatopoeic derivation. Cams , or sopor 
caroticus, was the final degree of unconsciousness and insensibility (sopor, coma, lethar- 
gia, and earns). 

24. The anterior choroidal artery, see Chap. IV, note 49. The reference is to the choroid 
plexus, named from the fetal membrane chorion. 

25. The pineal gland. 

26. The straight sinus. The “vein of Galen,” or great cerebral vein, is the forward 
continuation. The omission of the eponymic is probably without significance; the only 
man named in the entire Epitome proper is Plato. This is definitely not the situation 
in the Fabrica . 

27. “Press”: not the torcular Herophili, the “wine press of Herophilus” (or sinus con- 
fluens); while the figure of speech may be the same, the place under description is at 
the anterior end of the straight sinus, while the torcular is posterior. 

28. The history of the concepts of the nerve impulse has shown two main ideas present 
at various times; nerves have been thought either to be somehow hollow (or pithy), 
transmitting a vital spirit which obeys the laws of fluids, or (on the other hand) solid, 
conveying a less tangible and material influence. 

29. A clear distinction between sensory and motor functions. 

30. The anatomical specificity surely implies some tangible carrier of this animal spirit 
such as the cerebrospinal fluid. Even if this be true, it does not mean that Vesalius fully 
accepted either the fluid or the less corporeal concept of nerve impulse propagation. A 
translation of that portion of the Fabrica dealing with this point may be read in Lecture 
X of Sir M. Foster's Lectures on the History of Physiology (Cambridge University 
Press, 1901), and there Vesalius refuses to commit himself, saying “we will not too 
anxiously discuss” the question. 


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31. The olfactory tract; our “first cranial nerve” which is, of course, neither first nor 
nerve. Vesalius explains that he does not give it the status of a nerve because it does 
not emerge from the cranium. As previously noted (see note 9, Chap. I), he does not 
describe emergence of olfactory filaments through the lamina cribrosa ethmoidalis. 

32. Optic nerve; retina (from rete, “a net”). 

33. The lens and the anterior portion of its capsule. 

34. The choroid tunic. “The skin of a grape” probably indicates its dark pigmentation. 
Note that the old names, “tunica adniformis” or “rhagoides” or “uvea,” all suggest a 

35. Tunica sclera. 

36. Cornea (cornu, “horn”). 

37. Zonula and orbiculus dliaris. 

38. The oculomotor (our third cranial) nerve. 

39. The trigeminal (our fifth cranial) nerve. This text is difficult to reconcile with the 
two roots at present distinguished: a large sensory and a smaller motor root (“nervus 

40. Ophthalmic nerve. 

41. Maxillary nerve, including nasal rami. 

42. Masticator nerve. 

43. Lingual nerve (not, of course, the nerve of taste as Vesalius thought, but the 
general somatic sensory innervation of the tongue; the chorda tympani runs with it in 
its distal portion and carries the taste fibers). 

44. Superior alveolar branches of maxillary. 

45. Inferior alveolar nerve, with the mental ramus. 

46. The brevity of the text does not allow adequate identification of this nerve; it is 
probably the group of palatine nerves, branches of the trigeminal, and corresponds to 
the “fourth nerve” of Galen and Mondino. 

47. Facial and auditory nerves (our seventh and eighth cranial). 

48. A part of the facial nerve going to the mimetic muscles (here the branch to buc' 
dnator muscle is emphasized; see Chap. II, note 15, for inclusion of buccinator with 
the muscles of mastication). 

49. The auditory nerve, with part of the facial nerve passing through the stylomastoid 
foramen and hiatus of the facial canal. 

50. Vagus nerve, our tenth cranial, and spinal accessory (or eleventh). See general 

51. Superior laryngeal nerve. 

52. Superior cardiac nerves (?). They are given off at about this level and pass near 
the trachea and surrounding muscles. 


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53. Sympathetic trunk. 

54. The right recurrent (inferior) laryngeal nerve, passing under the right subclavian 

55. Pulmonary branches and right inferior cardiac branches. 

56. Gastric branches. 

57. Left recurrent laryngeal, passing under the arch of the aorta. 

58. The left inferior cardiac branches usually arise only from the recurrent nerve. 

59. The hypoglossal (our twelfth cranial) nerve, including (here) the descendens 
cervicalis portion of the ansa hypoglossi. It is probable that Vesalius considers this a 
portion of the hypoglossal nerve, thereby omitting the root which we count as first 
cervical (see following note). 

60. We number thirty'One pairs; eight are cervical, of which the first is atypical and 
arises above the first cervical vertebra, the next being typical and arising below the 
vertebra. We count five sacral and one coccygeal nerves. In determining the origin of 
any nerves from the cervical region, we must add one to the Vesalian enumeration to 
reach the modem count. 

61. No system of enumeration exactly accounts for this composition of the phrenic 

62. The brachial plexus; quite definitely postfixed innervation of the arm (see Wilfred 
Harris’ monograph The Morphology of the Brachial Plexus, Oxford University Press, 
London: Humphrey Milford, 1939). 

63. The axillary nerve, with branches to the deltoid muscle and lateral brachial cutaneous 

64. The lateral cord of the brachial plexus. 

65. The lateral head of the median nerve. 

66. The musculocutaneous nerve. The brachioradialis receives its innervation from the 
radial nerve; perhaps the inconstant branch to the pronator teres is meant 

67. Lateral antibrachial cutaneous nerve. 

68. Median nerve. 

69. Over the medial epicondyle, near the brachialis. 

70. The variation pattern is well described, but the frequency is reversed; the emphasis 
on the inconstancy should be on the ring finger. 

71. Radial nerve. 

72. Posterior brachial cutaneous nerve. 

73. Dorsal antibrachial cutaneous nerve. 

74. Superficial and deep. 

75. The deep branch, dorsal interosseous nerve. 



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76. The superficial branch. 

77. The ulnar nerve. 

78. Behind the medial epicondyle. 

79. Dorsal digital branches. 

80. Volar digital branches. 

81. Medial antibrachial cutaneous nerve. 

82. Dorsal primary divisions. 

83. The sympathetic trunk and rami communicantes. 

84. Ilioinguinal nerve. 

85. The femoral nerve. 

86. The sciatic nerve. 

87. Through the anterior and posterior sacral foramina, respectively. 

88. Such as branches to the multifidus muscle and the middle cluneal nerves. 

89. Pudendal nerve, and other branches of pudendal plexus. 

90. Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. 

91. Femoral nerve. 

92. Saphenous nerve. 

93. Obturator nerve. 

94. The sciatic nerve, passing through the greater sciatic foramen. 

95. Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. 

96. To the buttocks— humilior ; the inferior cluneal nerves. 

97. To the hamstring muscles. 

98. The superficial peroneal nerve; inspection of the text will establish several minor 
errors in the distribution pattern of the terminal branches of the sciatic. The branches 
of the superficial peroneal here listed are the dorsal cutaneous (medial and lateral) and 
the muscular branches to peroneus longus and brevis. 

99. This will, by necessity, include the tibial nerve and the deep peroneal nerve. The 
cutaneous branch is the medial sural cutaneous nerve, continued as the sural. 

100. The deep peroneal (anterior tibial) nerve, which passes around the head of the 
fibula to enter the anterior compartment of the leg. 

101. The tibial nerve. 

102. The reason for this is dependent on the concept of the tripartite soul; see note on 
Plato’s T imatus in Chap. Ill, general interpretation. 

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I N THE beginning, the Author of the human fabric fashioned two human 
beings for the conservation of the species in such a way that the male 
should furnish the primary principle of the infant, the female indeed should 
fitly conceive it and should nourish the little child arising from this principle 
as she would nourish some member of her own body [1] until the child 
should become stronger and could be given forth into the air which surrounds 
us. Both male and female received instruments suitable for these functions 
and peculiar to them alone. To these organs was imparted so great a power 
and attraction of delight in the generative act that the living creatures are 
incited by this power, and whether or not they are young or foolish or 
devoid of reason, they fall to the task of propagating the species not other' 
wise than if they were the wisest of beings. 

The male possesses two testes covered by skin which is here called scro' 
turn, surrounded with a fleshy membrane [2], and formed of a white, con' 
tinuous substance quite peculiar to them. A strong membrane contains this 
substance, growing very close to it in circular fashion and receiving the in' 
sertion and connection of those parts which are near the testis, constituting 
a covering belonging to each of the testes [3]. Joined to this one is another 
covering proper [4] to the testis and growing forth from the peritoneum 
where the latter offers a path for the seminal vessels. Thence grows forth 
the membrane containing those vessels with the testis; it is at no point fused 
to the testis nor even to the seminal vessels (except where they escape from 
the great cavity of the peritoneum). This tunic is attached with its fleshy 
part only to the lower region of the testis; we consider this the muscle of the 
testis [5]. 


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The seminal vessels consist of one vein and one artery on each side. The 
vein which seeks the right testis grows forth from the anterior region of the 
trunk of the vena cava below the place of origin of the veins which extend to 
the kidneys. But that vein which is offered to the left testis is believed to take 
its origin from the lower aspect of the vein which approaches the left kidney 
[6] for the reason that it may not carry the pure blood to the testis in the 
manner of the right vein but rather the serous blood, which by its salty and 
acrid quality may bring about an itching for the emission of the semen. Both 
arteries take their origin from the great artery a little below the right seminal 
vein; the right-hand one, climbing over on the trunk of the vena cava, joins 
the right vein, reaching the testis together with this vein. It is complexly 
intertwined with the vein before it reaches the testis and forms a body 
showing many dilatations [7]. This body is inserted with its base in the 
superior region of the testis, offering small branches to the innermost cover¬ 
ing of the testis [8]. The body is distributed through the manifold substance 
of the testis which changes this benign blood and spirit by its own innate 
faculty into semen not otherwise than the substance of the liver changes the 
thick juice carried there from the intestines into blood. 

The semen, when it is created, is received by a strong vessel like a worm 
growing in the posterior region of the testis and complexly intertwined like a 
tendril [9]. This vessel, round like a nerve, rises upward to the great cavity 
of the peritoneum along that path by which the seminal vein and artery 
descended [10]. Turning downward to the pubic bone, it reaches the pos¬ 
terior region of the bladder, to which a vessel bearing the semen from the 
left testis also runs. This vessel is attached to the right one [11] and together 
with it is inserted into the root of the neck of the bladder in the glandulous 
body covering the neck [12], 

For the semen and for the urine there arises a common channel which is 
led slightly downward and again bends back upward to the joining of the 
pubic bones outside, lying under the bodies which constitute the penis. There 
issues forth on either side of the pubic bone a nerve and a round and sinewy 
body which is seen to be very funguslike within and full of blood [13]. 
United and fused together, they constitute the penis; by the aid of its sub¬ 
stance it provides for its erection and enlargement when it is about to inject 


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the semen into the uterus. Otherwise, when there is no need for its full 
length, it is flaccid and slender. For the satisfactory use of Venus, it swells 
in its apex in the manner of an acorn [14]; it is furnished with a skin by 
which it can be covered and uncovered [15}. 

The female possesses a uterus, dedicated to receiving the semen and to 
containing the fetus. The uterus lies between the bladder and the rectum 
and, like the bladder, is suitably formed with a fundus and neck [vagina} 
[16} adapted for stretching and relaxing, intertwined with loose membranes 
and with some fleshy fibers (by the assistance of which the uterus is volun' 
tarily moved somewhat). It is joined at its sides to the peritoneum [17}, 
just as the mesentery contains the intestines. The shape of its fundus is not 
completely round but flattened in front and behind, obtuse above, and show' 
mg two blunt angles (one on each side) which resemble the immature horns 
on the foreheads of calves [18}. In the fundus of the uterus is a simple sinus 
[19} corresponding very closely to the shape of the fundus; ending in an 
orifice and constricting and relaxing itself by a natural force alone and not 
by the conscious will of the female, it projects like the glans penis into the 
cavity of the neck of the uterus [vagina}. The fundus of the uterus consists 
of a simple intrinsic tunic notably thick in nonpregnant women so that it can 
be stretched to a remarkable extent in the uterus of women who are with 
child. Another tunic is drawn over this one; it takes its origin from the peri' 
toneum. The neck of the uterus [vagina} is round and smooth; in the non' 
gravid uterus it is not particularly distended, not much smaller than the 
fundus itself. It receives the insertion of the neck of the bladder [urethra} 
and is furnished at its orifice with leathery pieces of flesh and hillocks or 
wings [20}. 

On each side of the uterus lies one testis to which vessels extend in exactly 
the same way as in males [21}. Here, however, it happens that only the 
middle part of the s emin al vein and artery is sent to the testis; the other part 
is interwoven in the fundus of the uterus [22}. The vessel carries a thin and 
very scanty and watery semen from the female testis; it is inserted into the 
obtuse angle of the side of the uterus. Veins and likewise arteries in a very 
rich series interweave the uterus, in addition to those mentioned before; they 
issue from those distributions of the vessels which are formed below the 


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junction of the os sacrum and the lowest lumbar vertebra [23]. These ves- 
sels serve for nourishing the fetus and for the re-creation of the innate heat. 

The fetus, contained in the uterus, is covered with three involucra. One 
of these is commonly called the secundine [“afterbirth”], because it sur¬ 
rounds only the fetus like a wide belt and is notably thick and blackish like 
the spleen [24]; this is joined to the uterus and receives the vessels extending 
thereto. By means of it, those vessels which are presently gathered within it 
are inserted into the umbilicus by two veins and the same number of arteries, 
and at last with one vein to the liver [25]. Two arteries [26] extend to the 
offshoots of the great artery as these are about to descend through the aper¬ 
tures of the pubic bones. The second envelope, collecting the fetal urine 
between itself and the third envelope, is a membrane embracing the entire 
fetus in the image of a sausage [27]. The urine is carried by a special channel 
[28] from the upper aspect of the bladder into this cavity so that, the urine of 
the fetus being contained within this membrane, the fetus is not injured by 
its acidity. The third envelope is a very thin membrane and is for this reason 
also called agnina, lamblike, by the masters of dissection [29]. It covers the 
fetus very closely; finally it keeps the perspiration of the fetus [30] between 
itself and the skin of the fetus, smeared, as it were, with a yellowish 
scum [31]. 

When the fetus is given forth into the light of day, it sucks the milk as 
its own nourishment from the breasts, untaught by anyone. The breasts 
have their location in the chest and are furnished with nipples; they are 
built up of a glandulous material which, by an innate force, converts the 
blood brought to them by the veins into milk. 

in the fabric of the human body, as far as possible most briefly and in their 
completeness set down; the following pages contain the delineation 
of these same parts, to be examined in the order we 

prescribed at the outset . 

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V ESALIUS’ ideas on reproductive physiology are Aristotelian in origin. The sub- 
stances from which the embryo is formed are ‘‘genital semen” and ‘‘menstrual 
blood.” The former is formed by the testes from the blood coming to them in a manner 
similar to that in which the liver creates blood from the food brought to it. In addition 
to the menstrual blood, the female also forms a thin watery semen in the ovaries which 
is carried to the uterus. 

The chapter appears to be the least adequate of the various sections in the Epitome. 
Much anatomy is not described. The significance of the clitoris was at first missed by 
Vesalius and later denied (after having been pointed out by Fallopius). The vagina 
goes by the name of ‘‘cervix (neck) of the uterus,” and the ‘‘fundus of the uterus” 
is equivalent to the entire uterine mass. The uterine tubes are not described. Fugitive 
sheets published by Vesalius only a few years before the printing of the Epitome 
represent the uterus as bearing horns. The section on fetal membranes is not written 
from the standpoint of human anatomy. 

The Epitome does not describe the various male and female reproductive organs in 
terms of direct homology, although implications are often present. Additional data may 
be drawn from the manikin-plates, where the reproductive systems have been repre¬ 
sented in such a way that homologizing is apparent. From such sources the following 
table of homologues in the Epitome is offered; it is subject, of course, to possible revision 
and addition by future translators of the Fabrica. 




Ductus (vas) deferens 
Prostate gland 

Corpora cavernosa (urethrae et penis) 

Gians penis 




Pampiniform plexus of veins 
Portion of ovarian artery 
Fundus of uterus 
Body of uterus 

Cervix of uterus (modern terminology) 
Vagina—‘‘neck of the uterus”—and labia 

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1 THAT is, as if it were an organ of the mother; the independence of maternal and 
+ fetal circulation was not known. 

2. The dartos tunic. 

3. Tunica albuginea. 

4. Tunica vaginalis proprius. 

5. The cremaster muscle, lying on the internal spermatic fascia (tunica vaginalis com¬ 

6. See Chap. Ill, note 79. 

7. Pampiniform plexus. 

8. The septula, which radiate from the mediastinum testis to the tunica albuginea. 

9. The epididymis and ductus deferens (vas deferens). 

10. The inguinal canal. 

11. The colliculus seminalis. 

12. Prostate gland. 

13. The corpora cavernosa penis, on the inferior aspect of which is placed the corpus 
spongiosum (corpus cavemosum urethrae) previously described. The comparison to a 
nerve refers to the dense fibrous sheath which surrounds the erectile tissue (see Chap. 
II, note 1). 

14. Gians: acorn. 

15. Prepuce. 

16. The “neck” of the uterus does not correspond to the cervix uteri of modem termi¬ 
nology, although the Latin text uses these words; it is to be identified as the vagina 
wherever named by Vesalius. To avoid confusion with the cervix, the word has been 
translated as neck wherever it occurs here. 

17. The broad ligaments. 

18. The cornua of the uterus. 

19. In contrast to the bipartite and bicornuate uteri of lower mammals. 

20. The vulva; especially the labia majora and minora. See general interpretation. 

21. The uterine tubes were not described by Vesalius but by his student, Fallopius. 
Vesalius confirmed their existence when pointed out by Fallopius; cf. Cushing, p. 193. 
The term “testis” in Vesalius is equivalent to our “gonad.” 

22. The ovarian artery, with a branch to the uterus. 

23. The hypogastric arteries, especially the uterine branches. 


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24. The placenta. The term “secundine” is approximately the Latin equivalent for our 
“afterbirth,” as a word in common usage. The word “placenta” was originally appli- 
cable only to the discoid type of organ characteristic of a few Mammalia including Pri- 
mates (placenta, “a flat cake”). For reasons not evident here, Vesalius has described the 
zonary placenta found in Carnivora. 

25. The (right) umbilical vein of the fetus; ligamentum teres of the adult. 

26. The hypogastric arteries of the fetus (see Chap. IV, note 32). 

27. The allantois (“sausage-like”). This is present in lower mammals but is not well 
developed in human beings; the error was corrected by Fallopius and acknowledged by 
Vesalius (see Cushing, pp. 186 and 190). 

28. The urachus. 

29. The amnion (&pv6c;, “lamb”). 

30. The amniotic fluid. 

31. The vemix caseosa. 

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T HE enumeration of the names indicating the external regions and places 
of man is here briefly indicated, and these may be entered with advarn 
tage in the margins of the plates showing the superficies of the male and fe' 
male body. Their description, however, is concise, since my purpose is to 
furnish only an index to the figures presented on these plates. Almost the 
same names may be applied to the external regions as are used for the bones 
of the body and the parts lying beneath the exterior. Of these names, deter' 
mined by those who more correctly employ the method of dissection,* we 
have already recounted the principal ones in the context of the discourse as 
far as our design in the Epitome requires. 

It is the habit among teachers first to divide the entire surface of the 
body into large regions and then to give various names to the parts of those 
regions. So the Egyptian doctors used to divide the body into head (caput, 
xetpaXii), thorax (flwQa|), arms (manus, xeiQ£?)» and legs (crura, crxeXri); 
just as Aristotle did, they gave the name thorax to the entire trunk (oA^iog) 
of the body from the throat, neck, or clavicles to the groin and the pubis, or 
rather all the way to the upper part of the thighs. They did not mean by 
thorax, as Galen and some anatomists of the first rank did, merely the region 
of the body which was fenced off with ribs. Others of those who attribute 
the faculties of the entire body to certain regions and consider the intellect 
as the seat of the soul distinguish a fourfold division of the surface of the 
body just as did the Egyptians, but somewhat differently from the latter 
they first divide the trunk into two regions; they place the arms and legs in 

* In writing this passage, Vesalius was upholding the more ancient, pre'Galenic anatomists 
who, in his opinion, derived their nomenclature from direct anatomical examination; the termi' 
nology of such observers as Galen (who, he contends, saw only the superficial aspect of the 
human body) is subject to criticism. 


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one division, those parts which, properly speaking, constitute the members 
(artus, xtoXa) or extremities. In the trunk of the body they make a divi' 
sion into two special regions, according to the two cavities therein which 
are obvious to dissectors. Of these, the lower one is cut off from the upper 
one by the intervention of the transverse septum; it contains the liver, which 
is the seat of the natural or nourishing faculty and the place where the blood 
is made, the organs which minister to the liver, and the parts which serve 
for the task of generation. The upper cavity holds the heart, the tinder of 
the agitative [pulsific] faculty, and the organs subserving the heart. The 
principal seat of the soul is assigned to the head; this third cavity of the 
body is the seat of the brain and the storehouse of the animal spirit. 

Having thus cursorily divided the body, the teachers again divide the 
surface into separate parts as follows: the anterior part of the entire head 
above the eyebrows, free from hair (tqixe?) and showing certain furrows 
(otoXiSeg, dnaQuycu), is called the forehead (frons, psromov). Above this 
and verging toward the middle of the head is the sinciput (Speyfia). On 
both sides of the sinciput and above the ear (oflg), in which is the auditory 
meatus (dxowuxbg jt6pog),hes the temple(xp<ka<pog, xdptrog). The middle 
region of the head rising toward the posterior of the sinciput is called the 
vertex (xoQixpfj), like the center of a circle which circumscribes the hair 
margin (jtepfoSog, otecpavi), JcepCbpopog). Near the highest region of the 
muscles called tendons (tevovreg) by many and behind the vertex, the ocd' 
put (mov) is seen. These muscles are prominent on either side of the neck 
and show a median hollow. 

The front part of the head, from the forehead down to the chin, is the 
face (facies, Jtpdotojtov). The inferior part of the forehead is delimited by 
projecting eyebrows covered with hair (o<ppveg) and by the interval be' 
tween them (peodqjQuov). Below these lie the eyes (oculi, oqpffaXpoi), 
covered by the upper and lower eyelids (PA&papa); the regions where they 
come together mutually are furnished with eyelashes (cilia, pXetpapi&eg), 
a row of erect hairs like the oars we see on galleys; these regions are some' 
what cartilaginous and contain the tarsi (xapooi). The termini of this com' 
missure are the angles (anguli, xdvffoi); the greater one faces toward the 
nose, the lesser one toward the temple. Between the separated eyelids, in 


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addition to the caruncula (eyxavflig) seen in the greater angle, there appears 
the “white” of the eyes (candidum, Xevxov), in the middle of which two 
circles present themselves. Of these the broader one is the iris (Ipig, 
orecpdvT]) or corona, the lesser is the pupil (xoqtj). The nose (nasus, $Cg) 
lies between the eyes; its apertures are called the nostrils (nares, p/uxTfjQeg, 
pu^amjpeg). The external sides of these are fitted with the pinnulae or 
wings (alae, JtreQvyia) of the nose; the inner aspect is made up of the septum 
(Simppaypa). The regions at the sides of the nose, rather prominent and 
reddish like an apple, are called the malae (|xrjXa); some call them the 
cheeks (genae). The regions midway between the nose and the cheeks are 
by some called the concava (xoiXa), by which name others indicate the 
entire region of the eyes (yXfjvr|) extending from the eyelids to the cheeks. 
That part of the face which we inflate is the bucca (yvaflog). The entire 
region from the eyebrows to the upper row of teeth is the upper jaw (su* 
perior maxilla, f| ovco yevug); the remaining part, which in men is adorned 
with the beard (barba, Jicoycov), is called the lower jaw (inferior, fj xarco 
yevug). The anterior extremity of this is led out into the chin (mentum, 
yeveiov), sometimes provided with a hollow (fovea, rurcog, vuptpr)) lying 
below the redness of the lower lip (to xatto x^iXog). The region of the 
upper lip (to avco x e ^°?) lying below the nose is endowed with a little 
furrow (sulculus, cpitapov); there the mustache is seen (mustax, pfioral, 
wrrjvr]). That which is circumscribed and contained by the lips is called 
the mouth (os, crropa), in which when open we see the tongue (lingua, 
yXcotroa), the palate (palatum, •foiepcoa), the uvula (yapyapetov, aTaqn>X,rj), 
the teeth (dentes, 68dvreg), the gums (gingivae, ofiA.a), and the internal 
aspect of the fauces (<papvy|). 

That part of the body from the head to the clavicles or as far as the 
thorax is called the neck (collum, T(>dxT]Xog, auxrjv) or cervix; if we restrict 
the latter name to the posterior part, just as the former is applied to the place 
where the rough artery (and especially its upper end) can be palpated 
(taxQvyl), we should use the term throat (guttur). 

The ancients called the joining of the armbone with the scapula the 
humerus (utyiog), and from this they called that eminence at the root of the 
neck and to the sides of the thorax the summus humerus (axpwpiov). That 


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part which turns directly away from it toward the throat (oqjayfj) and the 
hollow at the root of the neck is the clavicle (xtaig). The region which 
extends from the humerus to the tips of the fingers is the arm (manus, 
Xeip). The first part of the arm extending to the nearest joint, the bend of 
the elbow (cubitus, dyxrnv), is called the brachium (fipctxuov) and by 
some of the Latins* also the humerus. Under it lies the cavity called the 
axilla ([AaoxaXr)) or wing, walled off with muscles which in that place 
many call tendons (xsvovteg). The posterior region of the bend of the 
elbow is called the gibber ((oXexpavov, xopamj). The part which extends 
from the gibber to the conterminous joint is the forearm (cubitus, jrnxug), 
also by some of the Latins called brachium or ulna (d)Xevr]). At the very 
end of the forearm begins the hand (summa manus, axpoxeip), of which a 
part extends from the forearm to the roots of the four fingers, divided into 
two regions; the region closer to the forearm is the wrist (brachial, xdpjtog), 
the other is the postbrachial (|iexaxdpjiog), which from the likeness of its 
construction to the chest is also called chest (pectus, tmjfrog) and, by some, 
palm (palma). The inner aspect of the latter is hollowed, fenced off by 
various small mounds, and crisscrossed by many lines; this region is the 
vola (devap). The remainder of the hand forms the fingers (digiti, SdxruXm), 
each one divided into three parts (oxvtaXlheg, cpaXayytg) placed in series, 
the most external being equipped with nails (ungues, ovuxeg). The largest 
of these digits is the thumb (pollex, dvuxetp), which is opposable to the 
others by its action; the one next to it is the index (Wxavog), then the mid' 
die finger or impudicus (psoog), next to which is the medicus or ring finger 
(jiapdneoog, laxpixdg). The last place is occupied by the little finger 
(juxpog) or ear finger (auricularis). 

We here call the thorax (draped;) that part of the trunk of the body 
which is fenced off with ribs (jrAeupcu) and forms the greatest part of the 
sides (jitaupa). The anterior part of the thorax is the chest (orfjdog), 
occupied by the breasts (mamillae, [lacrcoi), with the nipples (papillae, 
in the middle surrounded by a darkish circle (qxog). The remaining 
anterior region of the trunk forms the abdomen (xuioydaxpiov); that portion 

* While the apparent meaning is “Roman anatomists and physicians,” the term probably 
refers to those who adhere to the Latin terminology rather than use the preferred Greek stem. 


Origira! from 


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of it which is nearest the cartilage of the breastbone and the lower cartilages 
of the ribs is designated as subchondral (wtoxovSQia) as the viscera are sur- 
rounded by them. The place where the transverse septum is called the pre- 
cordia is the region in which the septum inserts into these cartilages and thus 
obtains its name, although, again, others give this name also to the anterior 
region of the thorax. The region between the lowest ribs and the crest of the 
ilium (which projects more in the female than in the male) is free from bone 
and can be palpated; it is called the inania or flank (xevsdivsg, Xayoveg). 
In the middle of this region the umbilicus (opcpaXog) is seen, and immedi- 
ately below it is the paunch (sumen, itqov) , the lowest region of which, 
nearest to the end of the trunk, is called the waterpot (aqualiculus, 
eqn}6aiov, emoiov). 

The pudenda or naturalia (alSoia) lie at the terminus of the trunk; this 
end is the pubes or pecten (t]6ti), at whose sides, in the flexures of the 
thigh, we place the groins (inguina, 6ov6mvsg). The part of the male pu¬ 
denda visible without dissection is called the penis or prick (coles, [“stalk”], 
xauXog); the summit of it is thicker than the rest of its length and forms 
the glans (6aXovog), in the middle of which appears the channel common 
to the urine and the semen. The covering of the glans penis is the prepuce 
(praeputium, juxtOti), although others give this name to the entire summit 
of the penis. A prominent line in the semblance of a suture in the covering 
of the glans and in the rest of the skin to the anus we call the suture 
(ScKprj); the entire part of the penis stretching prominently as far as the anus 
we call the taurus (xouQog). We call interfeminium (xeqivcoov, 8ix<xAa) 
the region between the anus and the covering of the testes (which, since it 
is composed of skin, is called scrotum, ooxeov). The opening of the female 
pudenda, which is the orifice of the neck of the uterus [vagina], is called 
the sinus (xdXjtog, xxeig); on both sides of the sinus project wings and 
hillocks (TrcEQUYcopora), and on the summit of the sinus appears a fleshy 
skin (vupfprj). The orifice of the intestinum rectum which appears in the 
region is called annulus from its shape (8axruXiog) and stricture (ofpiyxrnQ) 
from its function. 

The posterior part of the trunk of the body is called either back (dorsum, 
vcotov) or ter gum; its sides in the higher posterior aspect of the thorax are 


Origira! from 


Digitized by 

composed of the scapulae (mpwtXdTai). The mid-region between them 
(lAeadcppevov) and the part of the back extending hence to the lowest ribs, 
or where the back protrudes most in flexion (obcvT]<mg), is ascribed to the 
thorax and is situated behind the transverse septum. The region extending 
as far as the buttocks comprises the loins (lumbi, oaqrug). The buttocks 
(nates, yXovroC) are a rounded and fleshy region occupying the dorsal 
aspect of the iliac bones; in the midst of the buttocks the posterior proc¬ 
esses of the os sacrum and the coccyx, subcutaneous, extend to the anus. 

Where the joint of the femur appears, there protrudes the great rotator 
(uQoxocvrrjp); here is also the coxendix (ict/iov) or coxa, which name others 
assign to the femur (pfjQOv), extending from the groin to the knee (yaw). 
The posterior region and the joint of the latter are called the ham (poples, 
iyvus). The leg (xvnpri) follows from the knee to the next joint or the 
beginning of the foot; some call the leg the crus, while others use the same 
name to designate both leg and thigh. The anterior region of the leg 
(ccmxvrjpiov, xpea) is bony to the touch; the posterior region of it, where 
the belly is seen, is fleshy and is called venter or the calf (sura, 
Yccotpoxvrjpr)). The tuberosities on either side at the end of the leg are, 
like bones, obvious and are called malleoli (oqxupd); not so is the talus 
(dcrtpdyaXog) which, unlike these, is buried. The posterior region of the 
foot, projecting backward beyond the straight line of the tibia, is called the 
heel (calx, jrrepva). The remaining regions of the surface of the foot take 
their names from the bones, especially the flat (tarsus, xdpffog) of the foot 
(jiehiov) or of the chest (pectus, cmjfkx;); the toes, furnished with nails, 
follow. However, when we speak of the entire foot, the lowest region on 
which we walk is usually called the sole (planta) or vestigium (; 
its inner side is the hollow (concavum, xoiXov), but the superior aspect is 
the tarsus. 

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(218 items) 



a 6{ioiofi€QsT^ 

b dorovv 
c x6vbQ0<; 
d ovv8e<j)xog 
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1 dprnpta 
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p xpaviov 
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r tvtav 

8 6gdY(AOTOS, 

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aut jdfjxtpov 
y tvycoiia 
z Xifloeifiris 

a aqprjvoeii54s, 

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calvaria cerebri 
in fronte . . . unum 
tantum (os) 
in ocdpitio unum os 
in uerdce duo (ossa) 

tempus unum (os) 
unus (processus) uberis 
stylum, aut acum, aut 
galli calcar 

iugale os 

quam praeruptae rupi . . . 
ip capitis basi os 



similar in temperament and 
fibers (muscle) 

dissimilar in temperament 
and elements 

frontal bone 

occipital bone (inion) 
parietal bones 

temporal bone 
mastoid process 
styloid process 

zygomatic processes 
(see note 6) 

sphenoid bone 

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b jrrEQiYoei&etg 

c fjdiiei&s 

uel atpOYYoeibig 
d 8idqpQaY(ia 
e fj &vo) yvddog 

f x4yx<>S 

g itregd 
h oreqpavicua 
i Xajx68o£i8r|5 

k 66oAiala 

I XemSoeiS^ 

m f| xatco yv®® 0 ? 
n 88<Svteg 
o tijivovre? 
p xuv65ovres 
q jwAlxcn 
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s (pa0VYY e S 
t wei8£<; 
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a YXcorttg 

b hnyXcDirU; 

C <HYMO€lftEt£ 

d $d%is 

e afyfyv, 

aut TpaxTlXog 
f dd)pa| 
g 6acp6g 


processus uespertilionum 
alis simillimos 

os in narium summo 


superior maxilla 
sedis oculi regione 
narium alae 
coronalis sutura 
sutura a A similitudine 
nomen. . . . 
sagittalis sutura 

squamosae conglutinationes 

inferior maxilla 







os v imaginem exprimens 



cartilago nomine des* 
tituitur, hinc .... id 

vasorum orifido respondet 



C imaginem exprimen' 

dorsum medulla 






projections very much like 
the wings of a bat 
ethmoid bone 

upper jaw 

wings of the nostrils 
coronal suture 
lambdoid suture 

sagittal suture 

squamous conglutinations 

lower jaw 





tooth sockets 
hyoid bone 

thyroid cartilage 
cartilago innominata, the 
cricoid cartilage 

arytenoid cartilage 

little reed: glottis or lingula; 

vocal apparatus 

uncial capital sigma 

dorsal medulla, the spinal 



Digitized by 

Qrigira! from 







Ieq6v iorovv 

sacrum os 

sacrum os (holy bone), 
in the shape of a cross 





coccyx or cuculus 











processus instar canini 

process like a canine tooth 
(see note 33) 



pectoris os 




anteriorem sedem 

anterior region of the thorax 











c. uerarum 

true ribs 



c. spuriae 

false ribs 



manubrium cartilaginem 

xiphoid process 




throat, root of the neck 








shoulder blade 



summus humerus 

acromion process 


uel oiYfioeiftrig 

interior scapulae processus 

coracoid or anchor process 
(see note 41) 



brachii os 

bone of the arm, or humerus 


duo inibi ossa 







ud (bAivrj 






gibber, the olecranon process 



qui a styli forma nomen 

styloid process 




wrist, or carpus 



aut oxiydog 


postbrachial, the metacarpals 



aut oxvraMSeg 

tribus ossibus 

phalanges of the digits, or 
three bones 




sesamoid bones 


Xctyovog 6(rravv 

ilium os 





os coxae 



pubis os 

pubic bone 



femoris os 




natem et magnum 

rump and great rotator, the 

ct ^^Y a ? tgoxavrrig 

• rotatorem 

greater trochanter 


luxgig Tgoxavrrig 


minor or interior rotator, the 
lesser trochanter 






Digitized by 

Origiral from 










exteriori interim osse 




os rotundum. . . . mola 

a round bone called mola 

uel ijayavatCs 


(millstone), or patella; 












calds os 

heel, especially the cab 




ossis navicularis 

navicular bone 




tarsus, including the navicu¬ 

lar, the three cuniforms, 
and the cuboid bones 



ossa tria 

three bones 



os cubi et tesserae 

cuboid bone 

imaginem exprimens 


JiEfilov 6<rca 

ossa pedii 

metatarsal bones 








cartilages of the eyelids 

(the tarsal plates) 





[extra ordinem] 








nerves, often indicating 








tendo musculi 










vfiTjv oagxixdg 




7 U|AEXr| 






temporal muscle of lower 









humeri articulum 

covering the shoulder joint. 

.... tegens 

the first muscle of the arm 



A non absimilis 

deltoid muscle (second), not 

unlike the Greek letter A 



exteriores musculi 

intercostal muscles (see note 



Digitized by 'SlC 

■ I 

Origiral fro-m 








septum transversum * 


et <pp£veg, 
et f) fivco xodta 



testi unus musculus 




alius musculus 




musculus .... anteriori 

sartorius, the first muscle 

tibiae sedi inseritur 

of the leg (see note 56) 




uiam, stomachus 


aut ordpiaxog 







inferius orificium 

lower orifice of stomach 









origin (of the intestines) 

















appendix vermiformis 







recti ac principis 

straight intestine, the 

uel dpxov 












uel tiEoapatov [sic] 


fjjca q 





portae uenae 

portal vein 




the omentum [caul] 

uel JjrfjtXovv 




glands, fleshy in color 

uel xaXXtxpEOv 







jt6poi xokr\bo%oi 


bile ducts and hepatic duct 


xvarig %o^vjSoxoq 


gall bladder 






jtdpog obQy\vf\Q 

urinarius meatus 

urinary passage 










xolXr| qpX£ip 


vena cava 




cardiac vein 



Digitized by 

Origiral from 








uenam paris expertem 

azygous vdn 



humerariam [vendin'] 

cephalic vein 

aut xeqpaXixfj 


T| xaxa padog aqpayitig 

intemam iugularem 

internal jugular 


fj fejci3ToXf|g a<paymg 


superficial jugular 




axillaris uenae 

axillary vein 





median antibrachial vein 



mediis uenis 

middle veins (see note 74) 








sinus seu uentriculos 

anuses or ventrides 

siue xoiXtai 


dpTriQia)8T)g qpUip 

arterialis uena 

arterial vein, or pulmonary 



agtripta <pXepa>8T|g 

uenalis arteria 

venous artery, or pulmonary 



8idqpgaypa tfjg xapSiag septo 




inuolucrum cordis 



8iaqpQaTTOVT£g fyisveg 


mediastinal septum 







tpaxEux agTrigta 

asperae arteriae 

rough artery, trachea 








tunic, pleura (see note 15) 









xagSiag (frca 

cordis aures 

auricles, auricular append' 




magna arteria 

great artery, or aorta 



soporalem arteriam 

carotid artery 




animalis ac prindpis 

the seat of the animal and 

facultatum sedes 

the prindpal faculty, the 


varriaTog ^eX6g 

dorsalis medulla 

dorsal medulla, spinal cord 



ossium medulla 

bone marrow 






jtaxeia [Afjviyl 

dura membrana 

dura mater 


Digitized by 


■ I ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 

Origirai from 








inuolucrum calvariae 

pericranium (see note 3) 


X£JCTT| jifjviYl 

tenui cerebri 

pia (see notes 4, 8) 







ruXXc55eg aa^ia 

callosum corpus 

corpus callosum 



parti quae instar fomicis 

fornix, arch, vault, or 
tortoise shell 


jcueXog aut xoavr\ 
nisi id hie descriptae 
glandi tribuere uisum 


funnel or basin (infun' 
dibular recess), funnel, 












nates, buttocks 




process, vermis 




choroid plexus 



glandis nucis 
pineae instar 

pineal gland 




wine press 



tunicam retis imagini 



uel qpaxoEifirjg 

crystallinum humorem 

crystalline humor (lens) 




capsule, lens 


vdkoEihkt; vyQOv 

uitreo humore 

vitreous humor 



tunicam uuae folliculo 

a tunic very similar to the 

aut ^oyoeiSfjs 


skin of a grape, choroid 






aut OTEQ£6g 

duram oculi tunicam 

hard tunic, sclera 



pellucidam tunicam 

transparent tunic, cornea 







alba tunica 

“white” of the eye 




aqueus humor 

aqueous humor 



neruus recurrens 


recurrent nerve 











ualida membrana 


a strong membrane, tunica 

Digitized by GOOSlC 


Origiral from 







aliis Sdgflog 

alterum inuolucrum 

another covering, tunica 
vaginalis proprius 



testis musculum 

testis muscle, cremaster 



corpus .... multas 

a body showing dilatations, 


uarices exprimens 

pampiniform plexus 


Jt6gog ajtsgpaxixdg 

uase instar uermis 

a vessel like a worm, vas 




glandulosum corpus 

glandulous body, prostate 









acorn, glans 




skin (foreskin), prepuce 







duos retusos angulos 

two blunt angles, horns, 
cornua uteri 



coriaceis camibus 

leathery pieces of flesh, 
labia minora 



colliculis alisue 

wings or hills, labia majora 



uel x6Xnog 


orifice, vulva 




envelope, afterbirth 




umbilicus (navel) 




secundum inuolucrum 

second envelope, allantois 
(sausage'like membrane) 


ovga X 6g 


channel of urachus 



tertium inuolucrum 

third envelope, amnion 











Digitized by 

Qrigira! from 




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frmit fubit^Hnu quod am in tonumci. in pede non minus nuam ns miuu' on: 
pitum^dtonofrent^ qgo tuber ck r tt nbi^offis recipmir, pccufia oppommefubftamtrgnuit buctwo 

mm m ^ oc quadrup<dum& auium ter partes aiiquid frdSSacmoi refertn 

genu fntsi itjto utierUeruertbu*. luxe a kroons cmiicif txKntiin fo ncs, cilia quo minus fUccidr (ond(Ut)t 
dcmgriwws appartf preaCnu^qurm* njtfcm & magnum roaio. 


fy±risj c? 


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OSSJtr'M ^fC RT I L^fQ 1 NV // JL I G^< M £ N- 

*, t , ,. •>*: "V,if* •* >**/; •’ ^ yv’lyV.~-' • '.’y ' *. ' v • • V ' r • ' _ . _ . , • *, • , t * ,. -. - .*' '. \ < ' ' 

tijjiz? fytjciiiis {frbitrxrtf motHi ixflnrinettett, Capisf 1 /. 

fun^ionem parumpeT adiuuantes. Aiqiht (ex formt, qu® oblcrngf 
St quail tacs uifKur.inukcm corrc(]x>/idmr *&' a dura membrana • 
ncruum uifcrium mucfticmepronaii,iM antcrioi cm dura ocuii ttt* V.X;. 
mex* frdemiusuindo lAtcra orhicutanm membraneis 5 crrdmibu» 
infrruniur. Siprtmu* ucto lu* oauUiju ,6c k*lut rurruum uifonom 
in orbem tia ambicns.ut Tex Ju r n limul eundc una aim frpnmo mu 
v-. xtV»>ur>, 5-: inxoilr-rijui^ fculo inducbant>in poiVnornn Jui^t oculi tuiitcx fednn carncus 
s^hHuindiiUifi'Ai mKyir.u impliatnr.&qldcmkTemenbuscu (cxilJismidadis prjxfl. Al 
uisiic i v■ ui, j •. 4 <r. . • iuicuiu^itiunmoiusrx hoiUoaiC*^ trrl.iuTtaUmfurturnoctrorfum^duc«»muicului,abmtcnorimalj: 

' : tritupendeiassmfeuminttimccnfrnirjrnubw mernbranets !iga< bccrcpronanJSiUnacppartemaiam^ltcramrupcriuilibmm^quii 
v r- meniiq*naturamfKj(tdi;i»itbu'; t 5icarnriurcritxoshbnvrormatur, idalx 1’ubijottir^niertus.Imrorlumucroalamconcrahitmembra. 

V .' acui m fceoiwrAfiamr,moac\idatwp parfcm aoat, rimiorum a core ncu& nanjii amplitudinc tub tunica illas (u^cuigctrlao- 
v LriQg'nfiWi»:mvi in^difcmHiuoju-muofrcmqiiam fr-iiluu organa tans. Buccar&UbTaoguucnnifruiiurnnqfquaroor.u‘f/imu* 

: ra[vHf i *t ! 4 ;i'iinthri-Tcpur rcl!qu.vquascnuiT«iioponuiipaftfs,uo it camcacofifbcuimrmembrana f lamasbbtti mamnrion pocITu 
f/r?V i» w Ac ariet^s iwgitu. C^auitt fcndv’rmuiculi quxdaidlavmu^ mum colli frde 8 f facic*d nulas uiquemuirifa»imttculols% faifta 
I’iOjAt Mr Hia liiW-fii'bnttum titu eaausiiificrfrenm t.oahiiiF*Quipisc Seomduramalis pronarur,ri^rrieri{abrO:implii\tatur.Tmius 
bM'ido ifmui^enui^foiunipr.oducKiii^quawdojllc adeb iongam ah infrnori maxilla in bimuI*u%Ubrurn pmmci.Qtiamw adrr.oda ■ 


' pymViitnu'adiurcniorianTquAmtn mouavdampanen mobtur) dii mtifruh illius porpo.qucm naf» abmextrorfum agerr novimus; 

qui uni cum di^i^minhcos^tUos uancn^ buccarum^ Ubmrtim 
aiu unuKffo du^tu ixon mdigcaru. Adeo ut long’Qtri mufruhin rnotuuffingit. ' v uxiijam iwfenorart inoiKnrnim i«nnc|Cnam 
lendinfmmod^lerrfcm.modoUrum £< Ufluiim<f»lsranfum,nio qiuruotftabenrur.pnmm' trmporrljsWV,itutnasoffr*& fronds > 4 ., 
^baufcjcem^rnodolongiorcrn deiinam : bituci auicmmiiicult qucuy ; Si cuneurxfaemf,5iL»e^nsoifib<wampioUrc?^prwopftd *•***• 
uniu«Tio progrclTu carncipcrmaitrant, wi mxliani ttowra dignsm outut , 3 c maxillf mfrnons rcuroproodfluj mfrnus.Sccundusi i !; 
ciirr liafioncm degmcrantsci. f’orro Ironns cutcm (nciTfbMna ipii mamlcnd o' mardorma dic5|A,abifa Of pi rir pa nrque iogafro*mi n 
rubia/ata.^c4x»c4^ hb»is^dauiftamouer/Cuu»n*micjncrtat:utitn cupatin,proctsJir s extan^nii*ill3cfrA inutmi, Tmuisi^'raptqs rr 
ce»rport< ff gmnerduih cxicnuj tenuem adr nodum obil.ioni procenibiis ^.rrmn ima^r. «t» rxptimctmbu*, io imemam fruiaUiar 

JhArt* ( 'iUC(Cui*m,u<lunipf;ui CUru rfrbrcfcxiuurndnivTiusiiooprf Ic jon im pi j nU f UC f u ui o:m <i k^i n f a xtlUm attolln 1 s ^ Sc' 10 \ax a z 

unriicrriimcorpu* , mcfnbranaqurdamaittfubdijcaur / quaquod prgrfumqiacntHorfUm agcrti.Qiumixcum Vuo contugc maxillii 
a ] ic ubi (quemadmodumhic in (rente)carjvu hbriaadaugeatur* tIo>rfumtrAhit,SCi (ly)uinjmit*nteopai*proc 4 Tutmt.uducnir, 

: carneAitiuociriuiTuiniuit.atqnrinicrhancmarnbrartam^’cuiem vltiobuicy uaicr'ibus prui.ittmdonanir.Adlummuni mtnrummii ^ 

' adepsplunmus homim'ancruatur. Suprnorpalprbia rtvVndi infer;tur'. Os• nkrcn$ drotfomrci’^arnhunf duo roufru : 

ifanUper membranebenchoo mouenir ;raenim psrtcquince ad Uimitcr proximijAtqia pectoris otlis fuinmo pronan. Surlutn uno 
uutMamociHi ledis regionem rarnra dlicitur, pilpcbrirn tuoUu: id duriitah) duo*a maxilla nifenon principal duc<tn:ut Uirra *ure 

| ?»cf ^rje'^ 'TV ^ >Ai«wrtcajoqu.amiTM>/da 
WviV* A(Vt>> 2*»tJ-5viihu«-int- 

*>vW# a* >v ;i<4oni»\ yurut |>n * 

I f i’Mrularc, 

ii AitTitiliittiC 'i« ii f <tt]Lty\uw vIuvVit* . f».nfijwk 
|[ jfrojfimiodtl 0>nft*5< k q*'lr'f , tlurum, til iAfit^f 

fi n»«rdin 

. pri gi h-d l frdirr. 



qvxduorum mufeulorum uiccnumcraripoflcr, introrfum'quc Sc 
dcorfumrafU linguatrahic. Abcius oflishteribus uirobtcjunus 
ctu.n liiigup ra Jici inferirur.mtrorfum.fcd lamctt magis ail lanislm 
guaagett*A^inrus& fcxtusltngux inufculi in un out btcrcfingu 
li a capitis proccflibus dyluin rtfcrcntibus mati, lingu.r radici mi* 
plamaiuur,cam furfum, prout hicauc illccontrahi* ur,ad btusdu- 
ccnrcs.Scprimus & oaaims utrincy finguli a btcnbus nuxiiLr infe 
rioristuxumobrium dcntiumradiccm cnati,hngux loiigitudini 
fccundum hunnlwra infcruntur.lingux partem ante fctftioncmin 
huntcorcconfjiicuam dcoiTum in bteramouenres. Nonusabin* 
terna maxiUxiitfcrioris fedciuxta fummum inciuum prcdicns.cral 
fus ccrnitur,& aliquot donatus infcnpuonibus.Iingu.vcyhumiJio* 
riCdi in fertus,cam cxtrorTumagit. quanquam prxtcrbos mufeu* 
los lingux corpus ante feiflioncapparcnSjtahbus uuplicctur fibris, 
utmtgnaNaturxinduAriainomncmmotus diflcrcmiam prom- 
pnlllme firatur. Primani bry ngis eartibgincm fccundx commit 
cunt quaruor mufculi.hryngis nmubm arciantcs: & quacuor ter- 
aam cariibgttem fecund.v ncdunr.f iniulam ajxrrirotcs: & duo rcr 
tiam prime co!figanr,riirmhm cbudcutcs.v.lii duo in tertixeartila* 
gf tisb.ifi confidentcs rimulant dringunc. Atep hi duodccim mufeu 
li.bry ngis propn)uocan;ur. Communiuucrb duo abode v fiiniU 
prim/ car t ibgin i inferuntur.eainqi ancrorfum arrol!cntcs,ri:ti ubm 
bryngis rcferanc:&duo a petAons oflepronati, incandemqaoquc 
cai ubgiuein pertinent. Dein duo a po(tenon fede domachi inuicc 
proxmu principium ducctcs,cius quoquecartibginu btcribus to* 
ti camci(utomncs (ere bryngis) infcruiuur, unacum Juobus po* 
drcnodiJiis bryngcmariftJiucs. All) duo abode » rcfcrcntccna- 
ti,5c in bryngis opcrculi rad teem inferu,id furfum antrorfumquict 
lunt. In caput niouentiuin cbflcm illiquoqucrci)C.uiuur,qiiipri 
mam ceruicis uertebram priuat m moucnt.funt autem umuerfi fep 
cent paria, quod Icilicct ucrobiy totidem enumcrcntur mufeuli. Ac 
primumparexquinque fupcriorimi thoracis uertebrarum fpinis 
pro:Mtuni,fcnfimc|cxtrorfum oblique afeendens, occipitis olfi un 
pbneatur. Secundum par, quod non duobus,fedpluribuscf!br* 
nuri uidetur mufculis, adinodumcp uanum ccrnitur, prxrijptia ip* 
fiusportionc ex iranfucrfisquatuor fuperiorum thoracis, & quin* 
quehum;Horu;n ceruicis uertebrarum proccilibus cnacum,iiuror 
ftrni quell o; with i l oblique conlccndcns, occipitis ofli impbntatur. 
1 cetiurn a (pina fccundx ceruicis ucrtcbrx cnatum, & extrorfum 
parumper oblique repens,occipicischain ofli infentur. Quartum 
par fimiliter occipitisoffimfertum,aprima uertebra inibi prodit, 
qua alix ucrtcbrx in fpinam definunt. Quintum ab occipitis oflis 
medio tranfuerfim quodammodo ad btcralcs priinx ucrtcbrx pro 
cdTus fen ur. Sextuin a fpina fccundx ucrtcbrx in cofdcm proccf- 
fu* pci tinct.fimilitcracquinquc nunc cnumcrata in podcriori ccr- 
uicis fede eon: iftcn$,ac paritcr ut tcrtium,quartum Sc quintum,mu 
fcu!isconlVis prorfus carnets & te. et bus & giacilibus. Septimum 
par iufignius cft.atcy a pedoris oflis fummo,dauiculistp qua illi ar* 
ricul mtur.utrincp unus proiufcitur mufeulus, qui furfum oblique 
dtidus in mainilbrcm capitisproccllum tnfertioneni ten tat. Cxtc* 
rum pnmisquatuor paribus fimultenfis caputreda rctrorfumdu 
cuur.iiucrbtriumprunorumparium mufeuli ex altcro larcrctan* 
tumcgcrint.a J capitis circumuirnoiicauxiliabuntur. Sc inilfomo 
tu quintum & fextum par.pnmam ceruicis uertebram una cum ca* 
ptte ingy rum Juccnt.Scptirniucro paris mufculis fuum munusfi* 
m d oharuihus, caput reda antrorfum fleditur: quii autem alccr- 
iuti;n blK)ranr,circumucrfionisautorcscllieiuntur.Vcrum ad ca¬ 
pitis moaim ,quo id fccundarib cum ccruicc flcditur.&cxtcnditur, 
acinlitusad humerus ducirur,ceruicis mufeuli famulantur, inter 
o ij paua dorfum mouciuia reponendi. Ac primutn par a quintx 
thoracis ucrtcbrx corporis lateribus primam ufty ccr- 
li i cfs uerrehram pertingit, ftoinacho fub:c«fiu, fupcrioraiiqi dorfi 
partem HoTrens. Secundum a prima thoracis coda utrmque prona 
cum, S^ interiuv tranfuerfbruin ceruicis uertebrarum proctiluum 
&<Ji infvTtuin,ceriiicein in latus.fcdantrorfiun magis.ducii.Tertiu 
ex craafucr (is lex fuperiorum thoracis uertebrarum proceffibus o* 
riginemobtincns,extcrnx(cditranfucrfbrum uenebrarum ccnii* 
ds procelluum impbnutur.ccruiecm'quc rctrorfum inclinantcm 
adbtusagit.Qiiartum para(eptimx thoracis ucrtcbrx fpina ad 
fecund Jin ufquc ceruicis uertebram pcrcincr, omnibus intcrmcdqs 
ucncbris.uti & primum par.infcrtum, ac ex eifJcm principium ca* 
pints, fupcriorcin'quc dorfi partem extendens. Quintum par u* 
trinqucctiamhabrtmufculuni,abiliuinofic in tranfucrfoslumbo* 
rum uertebrarum proceflus.S^ inhnum thoracis codam iniertum, 
inferioris'p dorfipartisBcxusopificcm.Scxtum abufinuoflisla* 

cn foie in doribmopkm^itlceniiccfn ufquc firtor, in tranfuerfbs 
procefltis lumborum/ed manifefbus adhuc thoraris uertebrarum 
iniertum. Huius pans ambobiu mufculis contratTtis, dorfum exten 
ditur:altcro autem tantu laborantc(ut & in alijs paribus) hoc quo- 
que par obiiqui feu in latent motus autor cuadic. Septimum fub fex 
to occultatum a podcriori fieri odis fede prinopium duccns,ad un 
dcamx ufquc thoracis ucrtcbrx fpinam con feendit, omnibus in* 
tcrmcdrjs fpinis adcrtum > ac fpinas inuicem colligendo.dorfum hie 
cxtotdcns:uti & in fiia fede d^uuum par.quod ab undedmathora* 
cis uertebra ad feptimam ufquc ccruias porwdum, ita prorfus in* 
tcnttcdijsfpinis coinmuiitur,utfeptiinumillis quibus adnafeitur 
Scapulam ad pciftus mouctmufeulus a ihoraas fecunda. 


*a f 

tcrtia > quarta& quintacodisantfaquamincartilagtncm illx 
cnatus,&: trianguli modem internum fcapulx proccdum infenus. 
Secundus feapulam mouciKium aboccipiuo prortatus »& dein fe* 
cundum ceruicis longitudincm ad otflaux ufquc thoracis turtebrx 
fpinama uertebrarum fpinarum apicibus principium fumens, in 
fcapulx fpiiuni fummum'quehumerum & elauiculx ponionem 
inferitur.tota fui parte quf in ccruicc confidit feapulam furium uct 
lcns:cauero qux fub ccruicc Tin podcriori thoraris fede haberur, 
moiuchorum'quc cucullis refponda, feapulam dcorfunt trahens. 
Terrius a traitfuerfis fuperiorum ceruicis uertebrarum proccflibus 
cnatus^cclatiori fcapulxbafisangulo infertus.dlant quoqt attoUit. 
Quartus ex quintx,lextx 5 l fepomx cent ids, ac mu primaru (ho * 
racis uertcbiarum fpinis prropuccnafcitur, fcapulxcp bad infer* 
ti!S,eam ad dorfum nonmhil furfuni conrrahit. Primus brachi) 
ir.ocuum autor a media elauiculx fide pectoris ofli proxima,8C pe* 
ifioris olle pronatus,ac quodammodo in angulum anftatus,bra^ 
chi am pectori a Jduci t. Secundus ab altera elauiculx parte,& fum* 
mohuinero,5v fcapulx fpina principiurn fumens,fuocf uerticcbra 
chi j ofli trar.fiicrfim i:t(crtus,id furfum uane attollit, hunc humeri 
articuliintpu!chre‘tcgcns,&figurf a non k abfinulis.Tcrtiusab /»»»<■<> 
humiLor i fcapulx coda prodicns,brach turn rctfia ad dorfum aDu ^ Aati 
cit.Quartus a fextx thoracis ucrtcbrx fpmaad huntiliorcm ufquc 
facri oflis fedem ex intermediarum fpinarum apicibus origincm du 
cm$,& uelutiin trianguli uertkem coatflus, in brachium inibi infe* 
ritur,ubitrcscomincmoratiinferrioncmlonge fub oflis capitcfca* 
pulxarticulato inohuntur. atquc hie mufeulus brachium uarie de* 
orfumrrahit,uaipfiuspnncipum perquam amplumcfl: ncquccx 
puncto iu ducitur.ut mufeuli fintplieem prorfus motum obituri. 
Quintus uniuerfum fcapulx cauum codas refp.cics occupar. Sex* 
tjs gibbam fcapulx fedem uniuerfam fibs' uendt cat, flub ipfius fpfl* 
na confidentent. Septimus finum implct inter fcapulx fpinam SC 
ebtiorem ipfius codam confpicuum.Hi tres amplis un plantation!* 
bus in ligamcnra humeri articulumambicntiainfcruntur,brachr) 
circumacTus opificcs,quamuis feptimus dC ad brachrj dcuationcm 
aliquid auxiltan uidcatur . Thoraccm mouentium primus i 
cbuicula cnarus,in primam thoracis codam infentur t ilbm furfum 
duccns,hacquecKcafioncad thoracis dibntioncm iuuans.Secun* 
dus a bafi fcapulx prortatus, tanquam digiris quibufdam odo (is* 
pcrioribuscodislongeantcaquam in carttbgincm* 

I- rit ur,eas que cxrrorfum moucns,t!.oraccm dibtat. Temus ex a* 
picibus fpinarum trium mferioru ceruicis,& prime thoraris ume* 
bra rum brum mcmbrancum'quc principium duccns, terms uc* 
lutidigitis , tribus quacuor fuperiorum coflarum intcruallis fub 
fca^utlxLafi infentur, casque codas furfum oblique duccns,thonu 
ccm ampliar. Quartus ab iliumoflcincipiens, furfum que ad erttri- 
cemduciir., duodecint codis qua pnmumi ucrtcbns difccdunr, 
infin'tur, il .oraccin ardans. Quintus ex fpinarum apicibus dua* 
mminfimarutn thoracis & aliquot lumborum uertebraru mem* 
brancusciwfcitur,& / tranfuerfim dwflus, acnonx,dcrimx8f un* 
dccimxcoftis ubi in intrriora refleduntur infenus, thoraccmdi* 
btar. Si xtus in tltoracisamplitudincrepofitus^erarumcodamm 
cat tibgimbus pectoris que oflis bteriexpomgitur. thoraris con* 
drictioni prxfecius. Induodecim codarum intcruallis intcriores 
ac cxcci iorcs 1 mufeuli rq^onuntur . qui cxrcriorcs in codarum 
odium intcruallis confiftum, a fuperiori coda ancrorfum obiiqui 
fuas fibras in huniiliorcmmiitunt: intcriores urro ab inferior! CO* 
da furfum oblique in anterioi a,ad fuprriorcm codam (ibras porri* 
gunt. In fexuero cambginum qux Icgitimis codis adenbumur 
imeruallis.cxicriorum mufculorum fibrx abhumdiori carrilaginc 
in (uperiorem oblique antrorfum repunt: intcriores autem fibrae 
k fuperiori camlagtncad utferiorem ancrorfum pcrtinent f acpro* 
aide in fex Irguimarumcodarum intcruallis quatemi numcrantur 
mufeuli. ut (puriarum autem codarum intcruallis bini tantum.uni* 

C ucrfi% 

Digitized by 

OrigiraS from 



uoiiq^ uniut latcris-kgorcoftales mufiuli quatuor fun* & triginta, 
ad unumomncs ar Aando chorad prxfcAi.Atquc numerateshaAe 
nos in uno latere thoracis quadraginta mufculis,alij toddern inab 
tero latere congruunt.& his oAuaginta unus acccdit,utrique latcri 
■ *-kr*>** communis^pfum uidelicrt" fipeum tranfuerfum infimx pc<!loris 
& fpuriarum coftarum camlagirubus a uertebris Iumborum 
fuperionbus infirtum,ac in medio nerueum, in dreuieu ucro ad in 
firdoncmc 2 meum,utfanguificadoni govrarioni'qucfubfiruieiv- 
da organa k cordis Sf partiumipfi fubmmifbandum fide dirimes, 
choraccm que proprio muncrc dilacans. His acccdu nt 0 A 0 ab- 

dominis mufculi.utrinque nimirum quamor. Primus feu cxdmus 
oblique deorfum in priora fibras porrigit,cum fuo coniuge rod ab 
domini inuolucrum efFormans. oecundus oblique furfum in ante- 
riora fibras mitdt,&cum fuo pari inuolucrum quoque abdomini 
con (limit. Tertius reAa fibras furfum ducrns,a pubisoflead pe- 
Aus confcrndit.Quartus tranfuerfim fibras digcrir,ac cum fuo pa- 
ri edam, uc Qc obliqui, inuolucrum abdomini extruit,ad thoracis 
conftnAioncni non minus qulmcxteriabdominis mufculifuppe 
das fe’tns. Cubicum duo AcAunt, quorum anterior unum ca¬ 

put a fcapulx emuds dadori fide,alterum ab intemo fcapulx pro- 
ceflu mucuatur,&illis efiormatus capidbus in radium infiricur. 
Poflmor a brachij ofle rnatus,in anteriorem cubit) articuli fidem, 
pocifiimilm °cro in ulnam inferitur. Extendunt autem cubicum 
cres^c unus ab humdiori fcapulx coda nafiirur, fecund us abra- 
chn oflis ceruicis poderiori fide, hi in defeeniu inuicem connafcun 

tur, Sf ipfis terdus admifierur,& media firelongicudine oflis bra- 
chq enatus t Sc fimul cum illis in poderiorem ulnx proccdum infer 

tus. In interna cubici fide gracilis reponitur mufculus,qut ab in- 
®emo oflis brachij tubere pro tutus, in latum degenerat tendinem, 
inccmf fummx manus cuti magnaex parte fubnaru:cuiu* benefirio 
ca cuds minus ucrfacilis,& ad cangendu aptior reddi credit. Rx 
dius in pronuduobus mufeulis quidcab interna cubi 
dardculi fcdcenato,& in radiu oblique impIatato:altero autciuxca 
brachialeab ulna in radiu cranfucrfiin du£lo.In (upinu uero radius 
ab)s duobus fer tur.unoquidem longo,& a brachrj ofle ad infirio- 
re.n radrj partem,cui brachiale articulatur, perdnentc:alcero ab ex¬ 
terna cubitt ardculi regiotte ad mediam radrj longicudinem obli- 
qu£exporrcAo,ibidcm'aue infeno. Brachiale quatuor prxri- 
puis agitur mufculis,ac duo primi ab intemo tubere brachij oflis 
pronaTcumur,& unus podbrachialis ofli indicem fudinend, alter 
ucro brachialis minimo oflt iinplancacur. terdus k brachij ofleena 
tus,bifido tendinein podbrachialis ofla indicem & medium fudi- 
nentia inferitur. quartus abextemo brachrj oflis tuberepronatus, 
ac ulnxexporreAus, in podbrachialis os paruu fiidincns digitum 
infirtioncm molitur. Duo primi fimul brachiale flcAunc: ter- 
dusuero& quartus fimul contraAi, id extendunt. Verum primo 
fimul cum terdo tenib, brachiale in internum lams agitur: ficundo 
autem Sc quarto una laborandbus, id in externum latus indinacur. 

Digttos manus mouentium primus ab interna ancerioricy cubi- 
dardculi fide enatus,antc brachialis radic?in quatuordiflanditur 
cendines,feomdis quamor digicorum in temodqs infirtos,ilIacj fle 
Acmes. Secundus ab eadem fide cu primo,fid magis dcdiue, origi 
nem ducms,primo fubflemitur,in quatuor etiam diremptus tendi 
nes.qui primi tendinibus fubieAi, ante ficundi digicoru intemodrj 
radicem cos tendines perforit, candemesin tertia quamor digicoru 
ofla infirdonem molicn tes,ea flcAu nt. Terti us k radio iuxtacubid 
ardculumenams,terdo pollicis arriculo infirimr,ipfius'que flexus 
autor euadic.T ertium mufculum, infiriealq trcdecimnumero fub 
fiquuntur,in extrema manu repofiti, quorum bini primo fingulo- 
rum quirfque digicorum ofli infirunmr, eius flexionis opifices, & 
tres ficundo pollicis intemodio podflimum inferd id quoque fle- 
Aunt. Decuimsfiptimus icaque digitos mouentium ab extemo 
brachij oflis mberc nams,& in did, medio ac anulari prxeipue im- 
plantamsyros digitos extcndit.DecimusoAauus ab cadcm qua nu 
per diAus fide prodiens, parui digid extenfionis primarius autor 
eft^uarilcumdectmifipdmi tendine tribus anularis digid ofli- 
bus infirto commixtus,ctum abduAioni ueriusexteriora nonni- 
hdimbtfubfiruit. Derimusnonus cum illo qui uigefimusprimus 
erit,commune principiumabulna,non procul k brachialis fide 
nanrifacur:& in duos fere dtfleAus tendines, unum exteriori indi- 
ds,alterum medrj lateridigerir,illorum'que digicorum in exter¬ 
num latus abduAionts autor ernfitur. Vigefimus a brachiali pro- 
nacus,&extemo podbrachialis oflis paruum fu Amends Uteriex- 
porreAus^rimo que eius digid ofli infertus, ilium extrorium in 
latus abduat. Vigcfimusprimus extemo Utoi exterioris pollicis 

region is ad terdum ufque articuhim implantatur,poQtds uerfijs in 
dieem extenfionis autor. Vigcfimusficundus ab ulna pauiofiipe- 
rids quamnuper diAus prodic: &moxbipardtb fciflus,unapor- 
tione in tendinem ceflat, brachialis ofli pollicem fuflinend infir- 
tum,& duAum, quo manus radij motum in pronum fiquitur, ad- 
iuuantcm . Altera autem pars in ditas rurfiis duimimr, qux fin- 
gulx unum cflichmt tendinem : & hxc quidem fuum tendinem 
primi pollicis oflis exterioris fidis intemo Uteri inferit: illius ucro 
partis ten do illi ofli tantum obnafdmr, in ficundum & terdum 
pollicis os infircus. Horum tendinum benefido pollex incrorfiim 
uerfusextenditur. Vigefimus tenius ad mtemu primipollids oflis 
Urns fidem obdnens, pollice ab indiceinfigniccrabducit. Vigdi- 
musquartus ab ofle poflbrachulis indicem fiifluldencc enatus, & 
primo pollicis ofliprxeipue infirms,polticcni indici proximead- 
duck . Supcrfiinc adhuc quamorgraciles mufiult, quatuor trndi- 
nibus ficundi digttos mouendum mufeuli in uola attend, 8c in 
internum Urns primi quatuor digicorum oflis infem, eorum quc 
digitorumad pollicem in lams adduAionis mimflri. Reponun- 
tur icaque in interna cubiti fide mufculus, Umm manus cflicicns 
tendinem, primus & fccundus brachialis motuum au tores, pri¬ 
mus fecund us & terdus digitos mouendum, SC duo radium in 
pronum ducentes. In externa autem fide confiftuiu dccimusfcp- 
timus, dccimusoAauus, decimusnonus, uigefimusprimus.uigcfi- 
musficundus digitos mouendum,&rcrtius & quarrns bracnia- 
lis monbus prxicAorum , &C duo radium in fupinum agentes, 
funt'queomnes numcro noucm. Verurn decern confurgcnr, fi k 
uigefimo ficundo digitos mouendum illam portionem diflinxe- 
ris,qux brachialis om pollicem (uflinenn tendinem ofiert. In extre 
ma manu obfiruantur decern mufeuli, primos ardculos digitorum 
ficAenccs,& tres ficundi pollicis internodf) flexus aurorcs,& drill 
digitosagentium uigefimus, uigefimustertius, uigefimusquatrus, 

SC quamor mufeuli quorum benefirio quamor digiti pollici addu- 
cunmr. Singuhunrorum teflescum fuis fonmahbus uafis tu¬ 

nica obducuntur iperuonxo pronata,& aliquot rcAiscarnris^ 
fibris cnutrica,infimxqucfimendcfircndsuafis fidi inferta. His 
fibris tefli" unus conflicuitur mufculus , cuius opc teflisobfeure •V- 
furfum ucOitur. Sic Sc membnmx utcrum firmantes, utrinque 
carneis donanmr fibris, hac'quc radonc uterus ucrobique unum 
poflida mufculum, cuius auxilio leu iter fuifum uerfus Hia contra- 
nitur. Vcficx ceruici unus orbiculacim obnafeitur rnufiu- 
lus^ntempeCbuam urinxexcretionem prohibens. Item alius quo¬ 
que* mufculus, rcAi in ceflmf fincm circulaam ambit,immaturx 0 
cgeAioni prarfiAus,& duoalij mufeuli port egeflionem rcAum 
inteflinumalacriterfurfum attollunt. Pans radici utrinque k 
pubis ofle grarilisinfirimr mufculus, nimis quam figniter adip- 
fius tenngtncm iuuans. Quinctiam ab ameriori fide inufinlire- 
Aum inceltinum orbiculacim ampleAends, duo enafeuntur mufeu 
li, inuicem fibi proximi, & urinx meatui.qua is fub pubis oflibus 
furfumrcfleAitur,implancad,meamm‘qucin fiminis eiaculadonc 
quo minusillead flexum ocdudatur.dilatantes. Primus femur 

mouendum ab ilium oflis exdmafcdc,8l coccygts oflis poflerio- 
ri regioneenatus, pofleriori magni fimoris proccflus fidi, & eius 
quoqueradiri ampla infenione innafiimr. Secundus fub primo 
magna ex parte recondims,magisque ab antenori ilium oflis fide 
pronams,eriam magno fimoris proccfliii in firimr. Terdus fictuv 
dolongeminor,ipfo^penitus occultams,abilium ofleiuxtapo- 
flcnorem coxendicis acerabuli fidem enafritur, magno etiam femo 
nsprocrfTuiinfircus,&ut duo priores femur cxrendcns,cxtror- 
fum^ in latus agens.Quartus a cribus humilionbus oflis faCTiofTi- 
bu$pronatus,aiam magno proccflui inferitur, femur extenders, 

& extrorfum non parum circumducnis. Qiiinrus omnium cor¬ 
poris mufiulorum maximus , SC pluribus panibus a coxmdkis 
ofle ac pubis pnnapium ducens, poftcrioriqp femoris fidi adhu- 
milioraipfiusufquecapita in firms, extenfionis & rcAx Aanonis 
autor habetur, firnur enam introrfum a gens, idep ipfius potifCmu 
pordonc k pubis oflis humiliori fide pronara. Sexms a duabus tn- 
fimis thoraris SC aliquot fuperioribus lumboruuenebris in mum 
eapie j,mtnori fimoris proccflui inferitur, fimoris flexus una cum 
fipbmo autor: qui a tota interiori oflis ilium fide enatus, minori 
quoque proceflui elatius fexto impbntatur. OAauus k pubis ofle 
pronatus,fubmiiK>ri proceflu fimori longa infirdone implanta- 
tur, id quidem fleAcns, ueriun edam impenfi introrfum mourns. 
Nonus anteriorem pubis oflis foram inis fidem o ecu pans, maio- 
rfque fimoris proccfKu infertus, introrfum fimur drcumucrtic. 
Dccimuspoflcriorem intcriorcm'uc diAi iam foraminis fidem fi- 

Digitized by 

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b< ticmJicam* & (ccuntfuit* eoxondio* offl* poftrrior*et»rifTime 
rcflcxm.icutluiiaJrjsirwifcuh* bicprarufctinibus Jhiau*titt,ni*> 
tonqucfcinottt proorflut mipUnucu*, kmur rorrorfiimcircurn- 
iivTfu. T tbtini agrmium primu& ah ikmn ollw Ipmaranoca fcvle 

*iuctte«&admodum ©lihqt** frcmuium fcmom uumum fcdcm 
t duifru*/ ammontibix tali utfmtur.tonuscF corporis graof unus, 

& umul long^ffimu* inafrulus cfh'cuur. Scamdui aputau olTmm 
comm JTura nuius, ntcandcni cipri pnmo (cdiw infeitur. T<r* 
riusa ccwaU»cito<T?> appoidkrp7mMp«mobiincnsdn<*»in quo-- ; 
qtjfc/cdun impUrmrur. Qitartu* abeacfcm Irdt v*o»rrtain» 
©fl** jif 0 .ii pot uortotf |®*§W,ori* defbjrdM ^iTunics* 

tibcr curb HbuUaf £?cufa/cJ pqulkmum hbulx ink* mir. Quinta# 
SbcjidcmciWrti r^ioivcprMcipmrtt *JepTui,m *mcrio»<TOiib*£fe 
deni rum n :Tui* pr uni *,Ur/vtm mio ti* tkchucvotplamanii;, Seif lift 
aM'Uni otYivfptt Ajwuwmt* merobranx medomufculisosfarttu 
iru ample* anJjimilhltJmiuv^ ptnilfirtUf ad menu* latuigtoo 

tu% $£ dHeriurrrt fcmor n Un» oocup.l\ 4 cuni o<fbuo & nonormdt 
item eftormar.curfuidla uuudcictlr. CVhuus cm mi ctuikt Inrv> 
raxV fadiof mii'im tpfTut prairfTusofigimTrt ducc*, qiuii remrm 
^nafjA^prox»m^a«nb»t-N^iiusicoxendkuotbr cubetv fupra 
ipfmtcum feuorraf tie olum.amcrHjn in pane cofpicuo origmcm 
^ CrptimofiCocixua mftrarus irmku! nqad aivtrriomt* ge- 
sitfjcgkmrra SyruriKiotendincm Jcgmertnt ♦ cum duobus mi- 
ptcJlcViVuujm? conlbtuit t<TKijntn:.aMrrrtor> tibif fcdi ualklifitmi 
impbh mum. a/que iit* prnnu^/c* tu #,fy»n»n‘i#y&£Uw« Rnonw 

ohVr c4ttr«fiv>v‘i« opiberx lt^j>ouurdrcundo uuennviTtio.qtiariO 

fiC qiivnotilyiirtt liquidc eX.' 0 ulcmibi«/ Qpi (b popiifC 
mukiUxiX.&ab <xceyiio;^Miu wfadj bgamcwoin tibrx os oblique 
pcrpnC* nhum non fi qmd igbjObiawrmotfOmMnitaiwr 

pnmt radium m prelum mouenfl* mukuK. Corumqun»dcm 

*d 0 Wt^ 4 fNfruv abmuriip lcnurrrx/;ap(rc ur»»agmc arnailum iti> 
>D{>i{,ai» fy feau tdut ab rx tmso capitt prHiojyum nan^kt<ur >am 
boportpridrero fuca. v pamt» ConlWumicx,&cum rnurs; pedem 
moticmif mufoUi r«>d« <a!ccrn inwruiipir^Tcr 

tiui csicuus d\ mufr«5fu.f*4i>>«l , rii6 quotmc fttwori* captircpro* 
«aru% (> & inponiut*rtgjotweadbucin itnliMinum eenduiena d<fi« 
ncftf^fiktsoiUfi rnttnm tatcrl inCtvmm> Qoanut.poJbrm mown? 
«wmmad|Uu 4 cft,aciifeb^xcumul^^afficu?juioiic,iiv:»piirTi»»: 
in uabd»lTi;\ium dcHiuf frndmewd* «u* duf?rpm ppmes/vm imdo 
unuiurdimul cum ipfo ca!c» m£hvut-4^umt*,is mFul<uiUvxtb»Dfac 
balxpnHiriiarfffdif'to^iine dfocWtt^ab tjfdcm p» oitafcrtut oHi-. 
ihiif t ubi ilJApnmum ddn&unr,^ lUtn mcoiotti nuikoii p}(l(TiO< 
r» ccodirimi cduot nitarli os, quod nrflcram imit-id o(!» <Onl€rmu- 
nuifT<(l,inl .’rtum.Scxtus tn anteriortubixfcv5t{X>kUifi. a«4>ijroi!i 
qua iflt hbub Tupmui coart icuhiur promiur f ccduicm in rxdacfn 

jhaIh olTtt poHknn ruftiociuis inffrii. Scptimua-aiituiM p»ui<ipty 

dikvus,extern uiti fibivl.un* occti|ut»ac ccndtium fu!> pedts mierto 
rivrflcxMm,pcd?>ollipoQtomi fuflulcicnii mfenr. Oifiauus Irptl- 
mo oicufmiriacquc a HbuUcnam outut.ratduw: infcn# radici offu 
pwdrj p.iruurn d^irumfuftincnrij, Nomuparsefttfu* q«cih^ua= 
tuorjv.dtf dimtovo.iciidctc 1 " r ^ 

nv drum ItrCKjnguudinisoil 

ttu F qu Jtrtuiv cmius mukuhta id umaitdf prxfici: & fi quid ad pc- 
du tTi-uum faar.ciim mqbliipnim itdrfiri inimoraagtt: feto auif # 
ru»nc«pc> ttul ,hoVt»M^ auilcvikmim bene- 

boo pcvlucr ilc^motuc.pi'oui finguiiagowt jnufctiik«lp«iU*f. 
Pedis diguiiis mouemmuj prumiAmpfatua *:onit coftocfrijf*66*V 
iimaparternonbunJiTi m npvrtk traifam, &' la to in manytrruiini 
non ab()iniI<rT(pmi(Ucjrerobrv»uiupoibdrf. fi( a cal a* ollr ttro- 
« ■•.ouvif. qjatuor dignorufft iMrcriiodn* fingub* tcmJmct 

ortevt,i\n urn Hexuvau 1 '.Sccundirt 5i rrrin is oo (Wiomn tiber 
di d-rin p<TJvpranr i & fcarntfus »n.igi$ q\uni Hbulx expor 

rc^ux f a!>»!K*^pro»».a»0r?(feiKb^« ib piaikam rnmu , quun qua 
men diiTcifcus ccndHiti/irigulosquintordignoi urn jmntollibui 
inier luprimimukutiraidmct. icuimanu fit,pcrforanicr» 

f .ivpofla fli ">cmrs.Ttimui b itiHiJa^adpbwiin nrxucnams, & cti l 
bhi d-WTiufcum cirpcrt^ua ,tpndiwit» «* pJanum profm: aqua 
rugu* pmcifor trndiminis ce»rtim*/v1:i ur,i mUicis S^mevfq tjrr iium in- 
trrmxlmni d cWu m bus; »ilu IMfcm totntin kxundum polKv'ia 

bimteriiijr.»tl»uf Hcxiom* xuror. I'e-cff»j mukult tin iucavlunr, 
rum ofTj jWium .duMbUx miikubs adknguKu di^ttcu prrfjivmu- 
bus.Duunu-.q»j,\rrus»giiiir i( cu!»ii pat v iKmurpcucmmoucniruiii 


‘ JBcn&hxtm , a ribce amtrion (rdrpronams, m quaruor du/miiur 
ccndtfirs t qui qiufuor d^giria mferti.eorumorminQnrtAUiorts cm 
(entur.Dcomusquimui; ab antmort obixfede ctiI piwrdtfm^iob 
lici mQrtrurjtpfiits cxrcn (ionia aptCrx. DedmuslcxmaM fcpfliw 
pcdisie-len*poiiinjr,canKaqi'cft itioIci in qtaruor diuifii toidmcs, 
quorum unus polbcw fupmans kdu octane brrcri irnp!anauur,fc 
cumiui indicis „ rmius racdq , quariuj anuUns: arque hi nmdinm 
co rum diguomfn mc*!rmum lam* abduifitonrs opificc* funi.Oo 
cimuircptimuseTturriumpediilatusoccupanF^parui digui pri* 
moofTi mfiruia.iilum a crier ii rcmouct, Dccmnoo^buut in ter no 
pedis latmcxpofTcxlut^lbccrn i ertcmdignbabduor. Drurit 
pedtiphuna czmra confi (bt fnbft4niu 4 m qaatuor gnaWidiflofw 
ponioncx.rcndintbutadhjrremcs, quorum mitufln'io erma quv 
ruord(grton.*molla dr^ilinrur,Ha‘poriionaiiiftmo quatuordi- 
girorum larcn ad primum aruculnm inbrir.corum ad polUerm ad 
dutflioiiK autorcs habotfur. icpromdrOiilM quamor poniones 
quaruormufeuforum yitt ci»u»?icraucris*»n nbiar poflrnori fcde 
obfrrujhi; jntmum,foeundtim.trnrurn,quariuni pedem mourn* 
& i&ziixm digntoiinoucnuum.ct fob dlis qumam 
pcdvTfnmourtiUUm dr. ^nttriori ucrtx kstiwndqfMiminn,vMftaaurn r 
itonum|*rd»rhoniumauiorcs,5£decimuinquarrum, dro’mum- 
qomrutfi vitg«os rnoufnnumrai pede aurem habucro piimum du 
giro* agrntrm ^decent pnraa dtoicorutn offat ficftci ite*, fit dcck 
trtujitkxjinn,deeiintmiffpomum t dcamumo<fHimm digiros quo- 

a uemoumrartn .»Ui d«nMumfncnimioplurevdiu«dcic propokiu 
fct. f'oerotn mufculorymcrkarfrinom paflirn ligarorntorum 

non mcmin't, quod magracx pane arncufi luuicrm i dpondcant. 
Omndnu mim anicubs orbicutatim ligammium ab unoofle m 
ahud, aur in car ulaginem r ud 4 carriiagint in o\aut carivlagmcm in 
(rnum priiurtm obducirm, pauca 'queat-iieulb li^amrma accdTc. 
rcpcculiana. Van captrisaniodo teresqunnldam a dome Grundac 
cervKUk urmbrxin occipiti* oa duo.rue^ ft e nndorrtdcnrts pofte 
riorem fetiem in prima nrttdtjr* muim mu&cslim frrmr . Wit- 
ijrinttn corpora It^amoun adinodum CA^tb^nnscommimm* 
nujif<r»tdouc*cicru&-dckrtidowc$ eorundern procrflii# uabJ»s 
quoqrie;fcd bnium ^mbirnr^v^colUgatuuf: dciomfpnannr. m, 

teni^jf) viucmbriivum io fi (b t iignacn urn/, (tctu in cubiic* i tbd, 
tibiO(faiwcimiiccm J«b»Aiur»i i tnfupe 1 in pithit oilTum ksrammi- 
bin huuugenmx occurru bgammrunt«jcxi membranapoitus hi 
burnm AftiCMk.Vi04 prcutiafli liifumi-f.qgoruin printum irrrs df, 

* &’ ab mrertut fcipuix proeeflu ciui um .mextenuua humeri caput 
fmur^alvi duo abcUnodeeruick fcapubrfrdc«fiats t in idem caput 

f icninct.&e unu qnoqp htcab mtrrno fcapulx proerffutn furrmumr 
utmcniductmrdtibrachialbiFoilmmtn'ttfff^cvm poObnchalig 
ortibu5connoai,u» & in pt\if k pjififa^criUgtn€Z (igamerna inter* 
ucnium.A' Cicrooflcduoimtiamcowiiicrstofpminent.Exfc- 
nnvie fuj’HTiori capirc rcmiigam-oioun in fT.<fcCndici$ acrtabuiuiTt 
inferirur. In genu articuli medio cartilagmtuth confidn hgamm 
lum.SCtldiipollcrtor«iphy*k*»lc ,& trtrtntpic ad iarera ununt 
peculiar* lecanobus obutturo df. 1-^ liginvmijotiimucrbtranfutr- 
ftm rcudimbu* obduklorum ( toiditu »‘que »*r kia fede dtcttnenf k 
coiumcnttuirt infcrna bradualnfcde umun confiftir^ 
fixrundiim uniucrlam inrernameuiufquc digiri fedem unum conn- 
nuum habeturpuru brachtalu adicenrin externaradq fit uln.x k> 
. de lex, ocairrunc. In antcrionnbijf fnk tuaia talum unum quoque 
obfirriLuar, t£ tda inrer rifernv bircrintnVqur ntalleolum, dein u 
mim utter ealrcm & cxfiTiuim matlcolum. Sa Sc mimrrna mfc» 
non ucpcdii Jigitorum (cdc«hUtu>quoqucgci:crisl(gamenta fpc* 
dlanrur. . , v : . ■ C; ■ 


Mtkfila f^ru6cfif t fSmuhnttlhi. 

• • . '• , * .•.. /•■•.• • v • r ■: '' : ’,' 


»;><X. hntro ftfoptt? h-me. r 
i>A^v 1 V'pr,’5r.TKdi>iA c* r^j^t<^4t*.OiirtJi*r,ns 
• i. i,tii*fvnr Wb-V ;$<. 

r>- ■<j ,lrv ! t »• » ’ y ■ * - g-' 

f i)*i u<i 1 1 1 isjtwwryxi /»* I '>r.prr *r^i n : «r 

,-c [ h*ii«V) v ^ , ‘*»»bV^mr,. V»cru«* ad 

•kbiruiu lf»inwi(M(iv cjw ti.niro4 <al<t 

Amnia A'palOUr *qcd>A fe>yi iLidft'1 : iWo! ytr rV &Kvrj(oau k oY 

;• P u t^x 

Digitized by 





gi’ru nutrition! mulbiariam famu lands obdnuimus. Cibus namcy 
jitibus.quo podmodum lotion opera conficiatur,cflira{his, per 
indr ac potus ab ore in uentriculum, unquam in promptuanuin, 

* ic-fayt, per* uiamdacutur, quae duabus proprqs tuntcis tendi^que in fc 

concidcrc ape is formats, ex (aucibus tub afpora ancria, ac dcin fe- 
cun dum thoracis urrtcbras per feptum tranfuerfum in fupcrius,(t- 
nidrum uc umcriculi on bourn pernnet,& domachus aut gula uo* 
k catur. h Vcntriculus uero inter iccur be lieneni fub fepco repofitus, 
bC infigniter capax,& fecund ihu tranfuerfum oblogus,in finidracp 
corporis fede quam in dextra amplior, be duabus drmum tuntcis 
chdendt conrrahiqueidoncis, be tertio quodam inuolucro quod in cducit intoftis.eftorinarus: a complunbus uerus,ar« 
tcrrjs ac neruis unplcxus,quod ab ore illi delatum ed concoquit,ac 
c wrA-js-f. uduc in la&eum crcmorem infira ui emutat, quern per luum ‘ infc- 
4 r ,us ori Return ex elation fededextri ipfius laterisexorturn,in 4 intc- 

dma propeilit. qux corpora funt tcretia uno conunuoqueac innu. 
tnensorbibusgyris que tortuofo dudu iuenrriculo ad podicem 
pcrtincnda,& limilicer acuentriculus duabus proprqs tuniciscx- 
cru<fla. qutbus terna a poritonxo accedit, non minus quam dux 
proprix.laxari contrahi'qucapta, non tamen undique paritcr am- 
# im+rj*. pla. Iiuedinorum iiquidem a uaitriculo procedens ‘ ongo,fccun- 
/ ucntriculipoderioraaddorfumufquercfiexa,dc'duodcniim 

gji]' nobis appcllaca, ac dein huic fucccdens intedmorum pars, quam 
k it*,. * ieiunuindicimus,&eaqux*itiumieuuoludusiiucupanir»fuis£p 
orbibus dia be fedem undique umbilico fubic<fiam be contemn ~ 
nam implcr.pari quodammodo condatampluudme, qux quum 
ar&a(ir,utdi{hs nuper intcdinoruinparabus gracilium nomenin 
derctur.incaufafuu. Porro intedmorum parsin quam det termi- 
nus ccl1at,unpcnfe craila Se ampla uii itur.iplicp appcndiculum con 
ttnuacur.mdarlumbnci inuolutumanguduirique,& uno oredo- 
irrpy-, natunvdcocp cxcu dilTechoms proccribusappcilatum. Ip (a uerb 
craila nitcdinoru pars a dexm renis fedead ircorts cauu afeendrns, 
hincfccunduin uentriculi fundum ad Items fedem, & tUinc (ecun- 
dum timdri renis iedem deuo!uitur,& gyro quodam in iinidra pu 
A kx-,. bis ieiic rcHexa,toto que dlo ductu k colum condituens , luper oilis 
l**^'** ^cri in ' tium rt< d® deorfum ad anum fcrtur, 1 retfli ac pvmcipis into 

* * rl ' (tini nomen imbiobtinens. In hxc icaque intedma qukquid ucn- 

tnculus coniecir,depcUitur, per uartos iliorum gyros dcuoluen - 
dum: uenx aucem qux innumcra ferie k iccoris cauo unit cum arte- 
rqs a magna artena deprompds, inter duas membranas intedina 
m aaw doribroiligantes.multi qucpmguedine ac "glandulis abundan- 
• hrtrrv* tcs, be " inclcntcrium uocatas, in nueftiiia perdngunt, ex ipfu(fcd 
W^ni'nvKjmgracilibus}iutcdiiiis,quicqim] (anguinieftioendoido 
ncuin cd.limul cum aqueo tmui que concoction is uentriculi rccre 
mcntocxugunr,idiccori fanguihcauoms odionx deferentes. Sp- 
fuinautem cra(Tius& ineptum fu<ftioni rccrcmcnrufciv im in or a l la 
coliigitur uuedina, tllic untifper adcruandum, donee hominetn 
molclims, reduio rcctu intedinu orbieuladm ambicntemufculo, 
o (find uniucrfiin que honnms arburatu rgeratur. 0 lecur in nullas di 

reinptum fibras lobosuc.ipfi fubmimdrandum organorum ebdC 
(imam iedem occupat, ac uentriculo magna ex parte incOmbens, 
(cpto'quetranfuerio proxime fubditum, & magis dextram quam 
Dmdram corporis fedem implcns,fupra gibbum,infra cauumuiii* 
tur.accumbcntium illi partium form radamuilim congruens, & 
muharum urn arum iinplcxu.quibus propria ircoris fubditu com 
creto nupcrianguinifimilu circunfunditur J cflformatum,renui que 
inuolucroabipliusligainentisquibus periconxo (urmatur proce- 
dentcobtevhim.neruuios que duos & artrnam item unam admit* 
tcns.&T naturalis icu altricis,aut,ut Wato dicebatjumercorumdbo 
rum Sc potuum concupifcibilis animx femes.Cxrcrum uenarum 
per iccur dtflfufarum una (erics in gibbo ipfius confidit, ad cauam 
penmens urnam,altcra in iccoris cauo reponitur/ ponx ucnxcau 
dicemcondituensrquxprimumueficulx bilem flauam recipient^ 
furculos duos promit,ddn uentriculi podcrion fedi iuxta infer41s 
ipfiusorifiaumnndeuentriculifendidextrxparti ramus offertuj, 
a quo ramuli in uentriculum 8 C fupmorrm omenri membranam 
fearguntur, quod membrancum ed corpus iaccult modo ami* 
{him, bC uafistuto deducendis prxdpue adaptatum: quanquam 
quum uenis artcrq&que & pinguedine ilia's amiia fcatcatyinttdmo* 
rumquoque calori feuendo auxilietur.lndardrculi enim adorfi 
medio fub uentriculi podrriori lede incipiens,per iccoris cauum ad 
fundum ucncriculi(acuius tertio inuolucro imbi pronaicicur)ad Irf 
nis cauum,& bine ad dorli medium fuo udud imdo defertur.Hinc 
uero (a cculi in dar deorfum procenfem^n rerion intedmorum ietK 
obuoluirur, uinatat ue, colum intedinu qua uentriculo oepoengi* 

tur. m eie ntc r n nice dorfe committens. Carterumportx caudes 
podqul omento fuffulms.d iclas nuper dcpr o m p iit propagincs,in 
duos panttur truncos,ac dextrum qui grandior ed,per imicntcriu 
uarie dtgedum, intedinu oflert, pnus duodeno irvtcdino,^ ieittnt 
initio ramum cxhibcns.glaodulofo cor pore huic in teduiorum fedi 
expormfto fudulium.Smidcrtruncus infriorimembranaomenri 
intcxtus.uairriculi podcrion (edi qua dextram dorli psrtemrcipi- 
cit.paruam oflertpropaginem, dem rtiam omenri infcrtoci man* 
branx,mox * glandulisnTcuaforum tutxdidnburioni prxicAis, 
bC colore camcis: dcin fecundum podmora uentriculi ramus ab il* 
lo aicendit.uentriculi dorfi medium fpcfiati (edi furculos primuna 
cxponrigms,&coronx ritu fupenus uentriculi oriRcium ample- 
(flcns.i quoprxtcr furculos deorfum furfumcp depromptos, units 
fecundumuentriculi poderiora ad infimus uaifriculi onRciu pro* 
rcpit.Ipfe autem fimder portx caudtds truncus fimdrorfum (cm* 
per tendens,infignem hie quoque promit ucnam,omcmo5.' colo 
intedino implidtam: ille ucro in uariasfc<fhjs propagincs, be febo* 
lem adhuc humdiori omenti membranx fpargcns,licnis cauo »nfc- 
nrur,ab ipfiuspropagtnibus,anccaquam benem fubeant, uentrieu 
lifinidrolatehramulosoflcrcnsrinterquos infignis occumt,qui 
fundum uentriculi in Iinidra fede perreptans,uentriculo & fupeno 
rimembranx omenri fobolcs denuat. Vcnx portx autem fobolrs 
per iccoris fubdantiam didributx.quicquid abmtcdmis be nonni* 
nil a uentriculo quoque iccori fc continent: ac lecur 
cius crcmoris optimum concoqucus^n umgumcm id onutat, fux 
cnam concoctionis duplex rccrcmcntum,uci in umi omm que con 
coctione alu fieri cermmus,obcii tens: unum quidem craflius.quod 
ueluti fanguinis fine &lutuccn(ctur,atra<ybil»suulgo fcredicitur: 
6 e per portx urnS in ‘ lacncm ablegatur, qui ad fimlirum uentriculi 
latus ad in(mora poderiora^ repofuus, Imgux craflions inugi- 
nem exprimu^ccumbentium organorum formx iccoris ritu con- 
grucns,& multis uenu acitcm artenis intertextus, qui bus propria 
hen is caro lutofe fangumi fimdis.Si' tcnui tunica, quam omentum 
pom git, inte^ta obnafdtur. Lien itaque craflius lecorisrccrcmcn- 
tumad(calliccre,at<yin ipfius nummentum conuerierc, Rquid 
fibiadapearc ncquit,in uentriculum id eru<ftarecrcdimus.l enwus 
autem iccoris recrementum, quod uclun Ros uim habetur, bills fla 
ua ed, quam ‘ meatus inter portx & caux propagincs per iccoris 
fubdantiamdigeftiinfcalhciunt.&lenfim colk um unummea- 
tum cedant: qui ex ircorts cauocdu(ftus,in bills’ueficuLun pminct, 
caux iccoris fedi indaroblongioris pin media idRus ampbtuduic 
iunatam,dc corporeconftantrm didrndi laxanf apto. Li hacue- 
ficulabilemaflcniarididcchonis profcfToribus periuafumed,do¬ 
nee ipfa meatus pcculiaris bcneficio illam in duodrnu intedinum 
protnidat:Rmui cum Rccis uentriculi recrcmentis egerendam, ac 
inteduu fua mordaci feculute ad propelloidum imtaturam^tquc 
k pituiu silts infidenn ltbcratunin. Cxteriim fanguis di<ftis nuper 
cxcremcnos repurgatus, ex angufuflimis uenx portx ramis in ar- 
tftidimas caux ucnf propagincs contendu,tcnui aqueoqp recreme® 
to.quod exintrdinis m iecur aflumpeum fuit,uchicuit loco urens. 
Id namquc ha<ftenus fanguinem conccxmtans,& fiinul cum (angui¬ 
ne in cauam uenam conTcendens, fin in his angiporcis mfignem 11- 
fum prxdat.Quum uerohuc ufqueianguini promptxdigtdionis 
nomineaditir,& Gnguis untam ipdus copiam infuper non reqiu* 
rit,confonum fiiic ,ut id a (anguinealioquin onusipfi furnrumex- 
purgaretur.cui munch 1 renes appofitiflnnc (aiuulantur, utrinque 
finguli ad uenx cauf latcra, & iecori proxime alk>cati,ac inaximam 
ferofi illius humoris portionem dren uc ad fc a llicientcs,illam'que a 
(anguine cxcolentcs.Quod quo opportunity moliantur, infignis 
uena & item artrria rent tranfuerfim cxporriguntur,ac ren in finum 
membrancum be amplitrr cauum, in mulcas qucdiflcfluni propa- 
oines,(erofum fanguinem excipir,&fubdaiuix renis illi finuiobiia 
fxfie duplid tunica obeeftx bcneficio urinamcxpurgat,illam in a- 
liumdcducensfinum,qucm T urinarius meatus uenx modo con- 
drft<dusexcip»t,hancinueficamdclaturus.* Vcficaetcnim rotun. 
dxlagenx quodammodo riruurinam (enfim pode 
nor cm pubis odis iedem pofita,pecuIuri condat tunica fimplicifiC 
neruea, triplin'que fibrarum generr intertextt, be contrahi aedi- 
dendi prompta,cui a * pentonxo abdominis'ue nKmbrana, qux 
, ha<denusdi<dorum organorum ed inuolucnim be firmainentum, 

. # aluobducitur.Inpoderioremueficxfedemhaudprocul 
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quali tatt bom rremmoledans^Tclufo orbiculadm uefief cenueem 

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» «WO i* fob fepiodrorlum fmur. Hoc quoqt pt opxgmcs of 
10 * *b u n a tadttr omen ro^aenmcuk>,ieW‘>bili$ 
^h'no t & drmijUniD fchoie* oUercns^uerur ponx ram &><w 
«ca». Don aiom radtorm imnoa h ic in mtfmtenum difpcK> 

*- <u b proxime ambit** tunide col^fucdrigenefrmpcr atngua. C* laWf >d primam cofHun propagmo,, Arrw«»,M>dcm prorfm#m< 

fcrum quia pulmo iHoraei«moio(i:icnof^opnivkiucnt arbittatu, doabfUiTwnd4m,qu©ramu*i^qttiofeHqu/pf»rrurnfiriifbil.vrrtf 

uactii bciichcio frqurn*dfcauir l ua?y % ftwm rarionr cxninfeaii cofUm adint dictbatur. Vcrum dexirn rami rvHqaiumJmnia farnn* 
w w /no«amb»ensa^p«rrnarc*feaiiidum w girgartohcm:5cquumlMbr foporaJm 1 d^orma^a^rmam^qu»lTmlIJ^C! K<y Ti^ftra fccwidum 
memiU 5 airrrm ducimu»,(5 per pf enain uclutt in fottem artrahtfur, afprrx artcr iacr Ui ui buccx pne*, ramim-. porr >gst «n U; »cm pmmu* 
ipfius pormmoila per caluanxfertmmacrrrbrum ptttvut r & feti- & in ftrrnporumcuitrpi ad vurmesem u^abforWndum. ipfi autcl4» 
qua oortione per fauces in afperam arteniant iubu wra n *,&£ pulmo* fyngi^ Hngu* cnplsci Htc repoT/to ^iwdy UfVm gcrien fobolrt 
nis cauicatemcxipfiua dOaadonr b£X adarhufTim implenr.Hunc oitn<n^caWiamadn,&/ndua»ili»u^ jwppaginrt. mmoftmiit 
WKilt puintoni«fubiUmia rnTita ui xlecrat,cordis^ uObua aptans, primumdr^muedurj-mrmbranf rinuwrxHauncpdtrn mi mi. 

oemmam (ui poruomw i uesalii ar«nx fami*undu> *fp«x pro, g^ndior ab% w conmgio ptr propnum totamen m caluamm 

pagipibwinwrummabrui tebokaab 

iuulWum cordt* Gnun>dcfeTatUr,fpU'iiw» unalw idonea futunuma nua^fur^ilaprr peculiar r foramen id narrUrA ampTiniditir Mrt« 
cerUt^Coremmlimic aCrtfrt inrahct^Srin {rnifbumipTiu* u*r ? crv '(ua'tu^ nxmmmt confrndit,'ip(44li)tfni propagbcaUiiftlx.balVi^T 
culummaflnamran^ims cop?am id^?roa2idwM,«halituo(bc- m 

iuftfeigwii*ip6u» (ub(bodx Wf 4 & ran^ft^M Swrido pari fi#n»onw rmbn ad ocvlvm 
muaip«^mconfidr*qucmfengutttcimpciu fumfc^conromita* dcpttWW«vfe^^4«.dur^ perfews. 

sum fotumcp per mignam atwmm Urtme?<bcorpd»i 4*ftr»b*iii & innrmwTn m#mbrapSh?cabfumpr^, partim wro «n dot- 

rurhtum ctuuf<y parrucalorcTn mmii wbw utnmculum rqkn«; pk»u« ou^mhoc untmculow. 

ratio cor infitJ. caloria fomttrm remit :ita'^ ><Wm olu% 6c reTpi^ portn p accxiimofern^ muolucro xwnparati ponionem rfletmar, 

fiotM»Scpollju«,quo amrumagrta cordit rhydimod4aiawrfiCco- -tluabmqi fpu »tum cnthroohcn,M( «ilk> ctrebribcncfioo amma 
Qringirur. Adfpiricum iguur con;w»enduni CC5r aer< utKur ,ipra%- 
lUitiiforuidiis color tcmprrarur, Vrrum quicqikid in hac rp>rtivi#C?5 
(tfiiont hiiiginofum fpirtfu^ef^eiriido irwrprij <ft,p<ruenalcmar 
taiJ in pulmone rtduci, atqp hmc cu ane qui inpnhttonf reliquus 
frat*compfd1bchoratt«csrp.i,ddfe^Honrt profidToribus nl con- 
ccHTum. Adco(ane urcor mdefeita ip(itt# ditaaudoe raitgvunanm 
drxnumipnwrunxtrictdumacdUaat^hif ,utiipanjm in fimihu 
ucnrriatfum duauir^arom ucf bin iprtJftt'pidnvontf. nuerbinrruu 
ab (pfo am ict prepare rur >&£ rofl ?3n <fco jfOl dep cr arter‘alcm «inum 
pulmoru oddatur, Cor ucio dtlatacum in^ruftrumucnriculumex 
pulmonrarrcmaiiumir/^rtftsTi^u uero fpinrum uifskrmma cum 
fengu tnc iwpciti pum «rin maghS intHI prope&t. Kjgb mmur atb. 

^ rori rapidao^idiiaivriajo uen.T «ux & umali arrertx noxam jn* 
fcftrr.Nai.uira edri; - r creauw^urprcmpruricordiappcj- 

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helium txmtur,dccuplo fciV minus crrrbro, acpofteriori ffiuips rd 
omnino fubirdiim,ncquc magis rccrorium quint cerebrum tpfum 
uergcrn. Atquc hare uniuerbcerebri dureampledsnir mcrobra- 
na caluarum proxim^ (uccingcs,& per fitiuras caluarix fibras por 
rigens,qux in peculurc'inuolucmm caluarix dcgcncrant.Hxc 
membrana tantumi 1 tenui cerebri membrana dtftat, ut uaforum 
ipfius mo rum non prxpediat.procrflum mittens inter dextram ce¬ 
rebri parte 8 C finiftri,«item aliu inter fodem cnrbdli daciorrm 8 C 
cerebrum qui crrrbefloinniunir.Huic membranx quatuor prx- 
ctpui infimt finua^icnanim arteriarumque ufum (imul fobcuntcs, 
& uariam uaibrum foricra in smucm cerebri membranam dtgeren 
tes.Cerebri enim lubftantix.qux continua,alba,& nullis uenis in- 
tenexta eft, tenuis quaedam membr a na uidniflmtiobduettur, quf 
paifimm cerebri mtoludonesinteibnorum an&a&bus (imibnaas 
wimplicans,ua(aoarcbri comma. Cerebrum ucrbtnbus infigni- 
bus et impenfo amplis donacurcauitaabus fcu uemnculis,quonim 
unus lecundum ccrcbri longttudincra in doctra cerebri parte confi- 
ftu.quicx poderiori fodc deorium per ccrcbri fubftandam refle- 
xitsjid medium ufqucbafis ccrcbripcrfmur.Secundus huiepror- 
fits reipondensjn finiftra c crcbri parte coBocatur,& ambo quiitw 
term's lateribus foinuiceni ipedam/uperiori fodc tenui quadam ce- 
rebri iiabilantia mum 6 diftinguuntur, quam'foptum nuncupa- 
mus,& qux fuperius condnuacur cerebri porrioni, qux quod car* 
Crrarum cerebripartium in iuperfidepoiitarum fubdurior & ma¬ 
gis candicans fit, * caflofum corpus appdbtur. Humfiior autem fcp 
ti fodes uniturconrinua'quceftccrebri* parti quxinllarfomidste- 
ftudinis uccxtruda.utrinquc ex poderiori duorum primorum ce» 
rebri umtriculorum fode,ampbbafi pronafoitur,& fenfim annror- 
lum proccdats.ueluri in acutum manguli uertteem> 
miliori fua Cede qua modorcctnicndxcauitad incumbic, mibrlbr. 
niris cauaca.Humiliorcs cnimdidorum umcriculorum fodes mui- 
ccm fopco non interftinguuntur,ucn}nn in communem finum con- 
ucniunt.fub corporr inlbr formas formato rcpofitum.df uno tnfi 
gni meant rrda deqrfum per cerebri fubilan tam pertinencem in in 
fundibulumfou 1 pciuim a tenui membrana inftar infundtbuii ex- 
trudamrqui cerebri pituita per ilium meatum drfoendens ,gfandi 
quadraticStoiTicuncum imitand fuperltratx iniUlatur.tUinc ad 
" palatum & narium amplitudtnem per infignia, non autem fpon- 
nixmodopertuG.foraminadcfiueni.Ida communis dcxtri&fini 
ftri uentriculorum cauitas terrius cerebri eft uentriculus.podcriori 
fuafrdc in meatum dcfinens,qui per ccrcbri corpora *trdibus& 
-* W'kui non aKfiiadia, in quartum uentriculum /■ontmdic.qui 
communis edcerebeBo&f doHalis medullar initio, antrrioriaepo- 
fterion fcdcTtarebctli 9 proccfhi omatus.qucm ex anfraduum ima¬ 
gine octroi in ltgnis nato comparamus. Verum in hoc uentriculo, 
quemadmodum in tribiu uentriculis prioribus, nullum peculiarc 
corpus (ecantibusoccunit.ln dextrum nanque uaitriculum (fimi- 
hter acinfinidrum ) per ipfius infirriorem podcriorcm'que ledem 
foporalts artenx infignior ramus confcendit, * plexum enbrmatu- 
rus.quem extimo forms inuolucro comparamus. Is enim ab illo ar 
tcrix ramo & cats uafis portione condttuirur,quod 'gbndulxnu 
cis pinex indar eflftgiatp,& cerebri tedtbus incumbena fuffulrum, 
abextremo quarttdurx membranx finus lecundum crrebclli Ion- 
gttudmem exporrcdi,per tertium cerebri uentriculum duatur, & 
abcofinu tanquam i ’torculari,ucnxarterix'que materiam fiiTd- 
pir.donceps in duas pordones difledum^ma in dextrum uentriaa 
lum,alterain finidrum cum arteriarum ramis ro pmic- 
nKntibus,didum nuper plexum in utroqucuemrieulo conduuie. 
Ex hoc uitali fperitu in illo plexucerebri munqs adaptato, acex acre 
quem inlpirances in cerebri uentriculos albcimus, ccrcbri fiabdan- 
cixinfitauisfpiritu animalem conficit.quo cerebrum ad principle 
animx fondioncs pardm ucirur: partim uero per ncruosabipfo 
pronatos, ad organa fpiricu animali indtgcnda(auxpodd<mum 
fonius ac mocus uoluntart) funtindnimenn) tranlmirat, non me- 
diocrem ipfius portionem a tertio uentriculo Tub tedtbus ccrcbri m 
uentriculum cerebello & doriali medulix communem difEindens, 
qux podmodum neruis omnibus a doriali medullaortum duern- 
dbus digericur. A'cerebri enim bafts medio utrinqueunus nafoitur 
procrdiis longus & teres,& lecundum cerebribafim antrorlum du 
dus,& altero finui odaui capitis olfis incumbcns, SC olladus orga 
nopropratsruerum quoniamcxcaluarix amplitudine non proci- 
dir,ncrui nomine a Didedionum profollbribus non donatus.Pri- 
mum enim fopeem qux er r eb ro aftcribun cur parupaulo poderius 
qu^m didimodoprocrdus nenaorii fubdaneix reipondentes, ini- 
ritfns i ccrcbri bafi dudt ^ ii forios condituensncrw^qui in ocuU 

*tunfcamrcti»imaginifimilcmdcgroer an t.Oculusnareqncincett> 
nutfltmx crpantmpcUicuIxcorrcfnondcnsobnalacur.Podcrior 
autem cuts humoris regio i 1 uionco numore continccur^iiiuspodc 
riorem ambit fodcminuolucrum ccrcbri fiibdantix respondent, in 
quod uifori) nerui fubdantu ddfoluitur.Tmuis aiu? cerebrimem > 
bratu neruumuilbriutninuedaena, in * tunkamdibtcfoituux fob ^ 

bculopcrquim fimilem:qutpoe ipla uniuerfura ocuham ample- 
dens,antcriorilcdiforaminc copenuia cemitur,quod'*pupiBam 
dia’raus. Dura autem cerebri monbrana ncruo eriamuifono dr- 
cundata,in k (luramoculitunkamfinacur,tMtoculo obdudam, emihfi* 
& in anterioriledeoculi cornu modo* pdluddam, qux 4 iride feu 
maiorioculi rirculo curcumlcribmir,ad quern* alba adhxrens'ue 
oculi tunica antcriorioculiCrdiobnaadcfintt.Pocrb inter cornd 
hanc & an erriorem ay dallini humoris fodem squeushabeturhu fiA mM m 
mor,qui 4 uitreo tunica quadam tenui&dUonuniiiugincm expri 
menti, & orbicubom crydallino humori adnata, atquc adb uuea 
prindpeum obonente dt danguititr. Secundum neruorum par mo¬ 
lten dis oculorum mufoulis kmioFcrtium duabua radicibua inui- 
cem didantibua utrinqucenafoens,mtnoftxti digerit quadam poc- 
chancub ad firontiscutnn,&quadam ad fuperiorem maxillamfii- 
perius que labrum^ quadam in narium amplitudincm, & quad! 
ad mufoulos maxillam inforiorrm aaoUmtes. Matorcm uerbradi- 
cem tertium hoc par lingux cxporrigit,hf c que Alius benefido gu 
ftus inflrumentum efficitur. Verum ab hac ctiam radice ramus ca- 
preoli modo intortus didis nuper offonur mufoulis, & alius fupe- 
rioribus denribus.altusque inlcriori maxillx acdencibitsilltinfixis, 

& inleriori tandem labro. Quartum par in pafari ceflat ttmicanw 
Quin turn duplia quoque radice.ut & tertium par,prodtcns^nino 
rrmmufeubsmaxillaminfcrioremattollemibus difpenbt.crafLo- 
rem uerb audxus organo ofiert,quamuu & ab hac Dinas difpcrgit 
loboles per diuerla foramina in commemoratos modb mu leuios e- 
tiam perrinentrs. Sextumpar prater ramufeulos ab ipfo qutbuC, 
dam in ceruice mufoulis & laryngi in defeenfu obbtos, fiptimi pa¬ 
ns portione adaugecur,arquc tuxta pedoris odufummum loboles 
quafdam illinc prodrunribus mufoulis pra b e m , ramum cofiarom 
radiabusdedudt, in ornna languificadom fubminiOrancia pul- 
chr^digerendum.Itahadcnusutrrquefoxaparisncnius paritrrdi 
Oribuitur. Dexter uerb priiuuim fui portionem ad artcriam dex- 
tro brachto ex po nt d am retorquet.a quo ncnius confurgit foam- 
dim alperx artcrix dextrum latus ad bryt^cm profialcens.ob 
idqucncrBus*recurrrn« nunaipatus. Quod autem rdiquum ab 
hoc dcxsronemo dcicmdM4>ulinonisd<xtrxpaiYi & cordis tnu# ^ry 
hicro ramufoulos olfort, ac llomacho tandem conundrum, fop - 
nim'que permeans, urntrkuli linpcriorii orifidj finiforam fodem 
mulcts propaginibusdonx. Siniltcr auerm ncruus ad artcrix ma- 
gnx truncum dorfo expkarum .porriortes fuss rcucrfiuum findlri 
btcris nenrom confoitucntrs retorquet. Ab huius bteris nemo pc- 
culiariter cordi gracilis propago dtg-ricur:quod autem cius adhuc 
re(bt,dextram iuperioris orifici) ucntriculi ledem intertexit, focun- 
dum uentriculi fuperiora ramulum ad iecur ulquc mittens. Sepd- 
roum par prxterquamquod foxtum impcnfoauget^racripu^vib- 
ryngts 8 C lingux mufoulos abfumitur .Nemi idorialt medutb in 
uertebris con club prindptum ducentcs, triginu complcduntur 
parfousrquorum foptrm cerutcts dedicantur uertebris .duodedm 
tboracis,quinquehanborum, lex baoolfi, nullo interim nemo s 
coccyge otic profiliente. Quxi cendas bbimtur mts- 
foulos tpfisadnatosproximos'que digeruntur: & k quarto,quin- 
to&fexto parium lurculis utrinque unuscfBcinx ncnius,kpto 
tranfuerib propnus.dari k auinto,foxto,fopdmo, & dcin ab oda- 
uo ac nono,fcu primo focundo que thoracis panbus,uartus neruo- 
mmconfurgit rexrus,i quo in brachium foxnerut ptiUubnc.pnB- 
icruarias lobolesfoapubrcauo&gibbodilpcTfas. Ac primus bra- 

chium petens nemus ab ipfius propagirubus, quas brachiumat- 
tollend offert mufculo.fobolcm impenfc graedrm in cutem bra chi) 
extemx fodi obdudam digerit. Sccundus per axilbm bra chium 
ingrediens, ramulos'qoc priori cubitum fledendum mufculo prx 
bcns,infignrm ipfius portionem frrtiobrachtumacordcnri nemo 
impartitur. ipfo uerb in cubitum fofoinans,& ramulum primo ra¬ 
dium in fupinum ducenti mufculo exhibens.cutem fubit:acin ua- 
riasddleduspropagines,litperuxis interforuquecubin’ fodiscit¬ 
tern ad extremam ulque manum implicat. Tcm’ua per axilbm 
quoque defocndens,& anterioris brachrj fodis cuti ramulos depr# 
menace focundi nerui portione adaudus, propagincm qurcom- 
municana, poderiori cubitum fledermum mikado per anterio - 

P rem 

Digitized by 

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Origira! from 


andreae vesalti brvxellhnsis svorvm de hvmani 

rcm fedem interior is tubcrculi oflis brachrj in cubirum properar, 
mufculishinc principia duccntibus furculos una cum quinto ner- 
uo fpargcns,& fecundum radiumexporre<fhis,atqucin inanus uo- 
lam dueftus,duas fobolcs pollicis intern* fedi,&totidc indici quo- 
quc,& una tanai externo latcri intcrioris fcdis medrj clargtrur.non 
infrequentcretiammcdiobinos ramulos & unuanulari oftcrcns. 
Quamis brachij neruus ertens multo craflior per axillam ingre¬ 
dient , Sc ramos mufculis cubitum extendentihus diftcminans, fe- 
cundum brachrj poftcriora ad externum olTis brachrj tubcrculum 
contcndit, in cutcm prius duas dirlundcns fobolcs. Neruus ad hac 
extern am arriculi cubiti fedem pofitus.ramum in cutcm extern* cu 
bin fcdis ad brae male uf<j fpargens, SC mox in duos ucluti truncos 
diuifi^mufculis que ab ex tern o brachij odis tuber e pronatis fobo¬ 
lcs dans, unum tnincum ulnx exporrigit, a quo ramuli in mu - 
fculos ab externa ipfius fede pronatos digcrunturripfcautem trun- 
cus iuxta brachtalis radiccmccfiat.Supcriorucrbtruncus radio cx- 
ponrigitur, SC prxtcr (urculos grades, quos a ecu m ben till us prx- 
bet mufculis.brachiale pcnt,& duos ramulos extern* polite is fedi, 
ac duos item indicis,ct unum mcdij digiti intemo larcri impartitur. 
Quintus neruus artcrix brachp proximus in axilla lari tat, 5^ nulias 
fobolcs in brachio a fe deduces, m cubitumper poftcriorem in tcrio 
ris tubcrculi ofTisbrachij fedem pcningit,ac mufculis hineprona- 
(cenribusunaaim tertio nemo ramos comm unicans, fecundum 
ulnamadbrachialccxcurrir, in medio durtu ramum difFundens, 
qui duobus furculis in cxtrrnam parui digiti fedem duobus item 
in anularis,& uno in medrj exterioris fcdis externum latus abfiimi- 
tur.Quicquid ucro quinti nerui mrernam brachialis fedem adir, in- 
cerioriparui digitifcdi,&anularis&mcdrj ramulos often. Sex¬ 
tus nemusinfigm ter gracilis.fecuduminrem am brachrj fedem Tub 
eutcdcducitur,& in progrefTuramulos quofdam in cutcm diffun- 
dens ad cubitum cuius cutcm fecundum ulnam ad bra 
chialc ufquc frequennbus furculis diffeminarur. A neruis etho 

racis uertebris profihentibus, prxtcr ramos qui rctrorfum ad fpi- 
nasumcbrarum,& dchincin mufeulosabillis principium ducen- 
tes porriguntur, fin gu la coftarum intcrualla fingulos ramos fibs 
uendicant, ad pectoris &T abdominis ufquc medium orbiculatim 
pcrrinentcs.SC mufculis thorari infiraris, a bdominis'quc mufculis, 
Stdemumeuti furculos difpcrgentcs. Adhxc ab intcrcoftalibus 
neruis porriuncul* digemntur, qux fexti pans ncruorum cerebri 
propagmes coftarum radicibus expormflas adaugent. Cxtcrum 
diftributio ncruorum < I umbo rum uertebris progredienrium tho¬ 
racis neruis magnaex parterefpondct:illi nanoucretrorfum ramos 
diffcminant,& fecundG ilia ad abdominis mediu circulation afccn- 
dungramulos cotcrminis mufculis 5 C cuti dargictcs. Veru a primo 
horu pari ad teftes cum feminalibus artcrrjs propagines quam mini 
mxperringuiu, a quatuor autem humillimis paribus nerui in fe¬ 
mur proetdentes principium fiimunr, quanquam omnium maxi- 
mus a quatuor primis fecri ofTis ncruorum paribus pronafeatur* 
Primum facri offis ncruorum par, fimilircr acthoracis SC lumbo- 
rumparia, euertebrislabitur. Quincy autem hunnliora facri offis 
parianon aIatcnbusprofiliunt,ucrum unaradiceantrorfum,altc* 
ra rctrorfum egrcdiunturA'poftcrioribus radiabus in mufdilos 

fecroo(Ti& ilium oflibusadnatos Sc cuti fparguntur. Anterior uc¬ 
ro primiparis ramus una cum anterionbus triu fucccdenriu pariu 
radicibus dictum nuper ncruu coftituit. Humiliorum autem pariu 
radices in ucficam.anum&pencm.autmulicribu sin uteri ceruicc 
& pudaidi coUiculos deperduntur. Porro quatuor ncruorum in 
£rinur progredicntiumprimusfecundum fextum femur mouente 
nvjfcuiu dcduritur,ac in externaTemons cute ramu diftcminans,in 
mufailosabfumiturcxtcriusfcmorislatus occupantes. Sccundus 
fimul cum grandiori femoris uena & artcria femur fubit,mox ra¬ 
mum depromens per internam femoris SC genu & tibix fedetn ad 
fummum ufquc pedis digitorum quc extrema fub cute Omul cum 
uena ,quam hacprorcpercdi&um eft,defccndens: hue que ac illuc 
ramulos digerens. Quod uerbfecundi nerui eft rcliquu m, in mu- 
fculos ceffet anteriorem femoris fedem contegcntrs . Terrius ncr- 
uusjnubis ofTis foramen perreptans, SC mufculis id occupanribus 
ramuloso(Icrcns,fbbolem denuat in internam femoris cutcm ali- 
quoufiy fparfam:rdiquuautc eius nerui in mufculos diffeindmjr, 
in interna femoris fede inibi locatos. Quarrus ommu corporis ncr 
uorum»qui ex pluribus neruis conftruumur/acile crafTifTimus,ubi 
coxendidsos a (aero dchi(cit,in poftcriora femoris ducitur, ramu 
in cutcm femoris poftcriorc fpargens, qui paulo fub media femo- 
risIongicudinecdlat.HumilM)rietenimfedi alius offerturramus,b 
quarto propagatus rveruo,qui ctii mufculh a coxcdicis ofCs infimi 

poftcrioti^ fedepronaris,fobolesexhiba ,uri & mufculis abinfiv 
rioribus femoris capitibus pronatis. Ddn in poplitis rrgioncin 
duos diflc<ftus truncos,graciliorcm exteriorem'que ad fibulam dc- 
fert,a quo ramus ad externam nbix cutcm ad paruum ufquc digi- 
tum rcpir,& alius in antcriorcm nbix cutcm difpergitur: dusucro 
truncircliquumfibulxcxporrigitur,ubifeptimi & otftauipedcm 
mouentium mufculorumpcndctorigo. Cxterum grandior inte¬ 
rior^} truncus ramum in internam tibix cutcm,& in furxparircr 
cutnnadealeem ufqueporrigir:ipfe ucro in mufculis furam cor.fti 
tucntibusoccultatus.ramumpcrligamcntum mcmbrancum mic- 
tit,quo fibula tibixalligatur.hic ramus mufculis antcriorcm tibix 
fedon obcincntibusrcconditus,tandem in pedis fuperiora contcn- 
dit,intbi digitis oblatus.Prxcipuarius grandioris trunci portio fc¬ 
cundum tibix poftcriora dcorium properans, & nonnullas fobo- 
kshuciUucmufcuUscxhibcns ( inccr ealeem intcriorcm^ mallcolu 
pedishumilioraadit.&cxigiiasadmodum fobolcs mufculis inibi 
repofinsoflcrcs^'nferiori finouloru digitoru fediduaspropaginrs 
comunicar.Atcf adhunefanemodu iinir.cfus rcrum Opifex non 
aduiucndumodo.fedctiainad comodeuiucnducoipus noftrum 
corruptioni obnoxium condidic quxaurem ad fpcctci fucctfTionc 
fabretccerit,qutcyhxc.nurruiomsorganis procul a fenfibus ra 
non is fede iubiunxerit.nunc obiter & quantum hxc human* febrt 
ex parrium cnumcratio admiuu,fubrjcum. 


propound*jamuhntibus . 

Caput V /. 

n IT f o adfpeaciconfmiationem human* 
fabric* autor duos hominesitacxn uxit, ut tur 
quideminfanris primarium porrgeret prim i- 
pium, mulicr ucrc id aptc qoncipcrct, infantu- 
iuir ex hoepronatum principio tantifpcr no 
fecus quam aliquod fui corporis membru enu- 
I trirct, qitoufque is ualidior redditus, in acrcm 
nosambicntc produci pofict. Acqihismunijs idoncapeculiariaq^ 
inllrumcntauiracnu:!icrobtimiit,quibus tanta ad generationem 
uendia, fiuc ftulta &T ra tionis expertia fint.haud aluerfprcicipropa 
gandx incumbant, quam fi effent fapien nffima. Virquidem di*os, 
adipifeitur* tcftcs.cutequx hie’ 1 fcor turn dicitur.cjmra'quc mein 
branaobdu<ftos,Sf alba acconrinuapcculiarfqueprorfus febftan 
riaextru<ftos:quam c ual]dacontinet membrana,orbiculatim fub- 
ftanrixhuicproximeadnata.accorum qux tefti applantantur in- 
fcrrioncmconnexumcpcxcipicns, fingulisq^ tcftibus pcculiarc in- 
uoUicrinnconftituens. cui^alterum quoque proprium acccdit a 
peritonxo inibi pronatum.ubi id uafisfeminahbus uiam often .11 
line namquc membrana pronafeitur, ca uafa cum tefte conrinms. 
Sc tefti nufquam,nequc ctiam feminalibus uafis(nifi qua ex magna 
peritonei amplitudineexcidunO pcrtinaciter conncxa.Ad humilio 
rcm enim teftis fedem hxc tunica ipfius carnca parte tannim adna- 
fdtur, quam teftis * mufeulum cenfeinus. V r a(a autem feminalia 

funt.unautrinqucucna,una'queartcria. V r cra dextrum teftem pe- 
tens 4cauxcaudKis anteriori fede fub uenarum in rents penmen* 
tiumexortu pronafeitur: qux ucro fintftro tefti oftenur, ab humi- 
liori fede ucnc finiftru renem adcuntis cb hoc principiu fumcrc ere 
ditu^ut non puru (anguiiicm dextrx ucn p modo tefti pcrferar,fed 
ferofum,qui ipfius fella acri qualitatcin fiminis cicflionc pniri- 
fumconcilict.Ambxancrixagrandiartfriapaulo infenus quam 
dcxtrafemina!isucnaimtiuinducunt,&i dextracauccaudiccm con 
fcciuicns ad dextram ferrur ucnani,fimul cum hac teftem accede ns: 
Sc cum uena antcaquam teftnn attingat.uarie pcrplcxa/corpui^ 
eftbrmans multasuarierscxprimcns,lua'qucbafi elation tcftisfedi 
infertu,&ramulos intimo teftis inuolucroofliTens.multiferiaincy 
per teftis fubftantiam digeftum, qux fenouincm hunt benignum. 
Sc fpuirum ingenita ipfi fecultate in feme naud fecus cmufar,quim 
iecoris fubftatu crcmorcmab inteftinisci dclatum f iu fenguinem 
altcrat.Confrtfiumfimcna'ualido uafeinftar uenros teftis poftc- 
riori fedi adnato.uanequc capreoli ritu implcxocxcipirur .Hoc uas 
furfum ad magnam periconxi cauitatemca uia confe widens ,<jua fc* 
a'nxr:&deorium ad pubis os nrficxum, poftenoreta ueficx fedem 
ficctditjad quam uas k Goiftio tefte femoi deferens ctiani pvopenu 



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<3*aeru.*f., Quod ab tDoprorfum uiffu* 1 * lugulum (aucxm ut m colli 
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&gK£» cm projKndmnv* Mam** :tuin* priroa pars f/ubquaca- € ***}[. 
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silk MqcaSwi; kpc* # ctotKiCad pc o juomm ufqu 
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&i)&t .ro&sr war flcwia 3lwf fodrn' Cnbbrru* <rfl 

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to^limwinirrtnvji^; VV4^v^ic:tR-«'l'quafamm^ Cr^r*^ 
manuipar*, ^Digiirilunr^/t<ng^<tetr»»V jurtibusun- • 

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, 1 : ,:n» .xMampudtriiJt part cicraMioncm conipicua, *P<nit&Colt*uottr * w 

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ai Uiur^rukp*ri:^«t><*raT):c !acuracnM>doliacArt*Uocjfftu*' Suturam,& tocambic 
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' 1 r>^ . \iiu(u> ab Stridor appdUrur. Poflaxor Bund cor, 

porhl \^>ortotaur I Ci iifl Vcrrowncupantf.OiiUM wf rb*kMi portvrmjri^ 

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Z^rKhii" a L frciti : 

4TY OF M£f 


M y L T I 8 QJT E “P x^i JL T I B V E E X T JL V C T %*AE, 

cbang&enm Index* 

QYOTJI^AAf figamHclngiemicepi 
m adprarmi pegmem g lndeat, m e eaaaf no 
tpm enm-tramj fintm am* cam or gear* name* 
toAet fact meant gy per i romeo aldaAnt c omm enk a * iafigwtstd* amt dereAtnlal, 
mm oil re/meat.promampracipr^t ipfiea pen- 
tummmfaJti leomtltemtadeere , ecdrmfm* 
goti m cefat effertt, ehpt cler eAtr s let exprk 

» % 



A*AA Septan tranfarrfanhU tm§*dnr,mdd 
tafitimn rt prAom ofitt eeruleg r u let rrfctfmm 
efi-ij drsn ftU tec art* <J hen* peflenoreJmbit. 
C erd* imtolmcntflpoTttoml* rt&Ae, fan idft 
fetnegae empLtadtnt ftuwi ■ 
Certemeptiexp hecfimpl-a figure heart rnfi* 
fide txprrffam.cj fee atfit ernntfae oAemdimt- 
Hate cordt figure An* fm k e a ffrm. tmatpfiat 
■wnn/st. on fine, CT ipfit prafiAat oAta* 
Affm modi dam etf altera clef 
raid fim patiuffrt 

B,D.D,D 'Pa lm omt f aataorrnma a ter lokfiefi- 
St* .Yearn* at cor namfi Arm* mm lac fig*** 
pia g ttnmr, detect* imarftpaaaet 

mafinat, at 

M Bden/UaemaxapientarficmU- 
l Yemricmlet fail aafit 

tSo & fapanenanadreae 
tdemktaulo n pemt e e 
K Superset am r au i nmlr 

E xAfiera enrria ceadrx fi m d m m ler^ftjp » 
fij teeexag lmd l t t 

P,P Iteontgslk raegaefaperfidtt emeeamcmah 
tori* fidatfal Sag .etfatai 
tar-G cT G p n rnmmtafi* 

<y ddafioat a 

L Itfinom mn aS rm t earned pordt, mm mSm a 

M /wAhWi 

I aft amain 
UfalAte.gj calmer 
perngrrar .dorfo cell gams :atf lax < 
par ipfam dAr l a t armm drlrmoumrjrrnt, at O' 
aefirsm dfhr U at x af ar n tfi a tara m a* i a ttArm 





aafit axpirffa-Yera** 

T Yana earn cendtx.faa mar co\ 

Y.X Cord*Lfit.a€fadtiaefiAt 
facaag nt t e- 
Carit* macro. 

Van* fam at enrria par tarda tar p m dfr fie - 


J^axxra crrtlnaavirata, 

StmlAre auricula apat. 

Yana ertersaht ceadrx- Ytmaiaamam annut 

Mii'i i jt - fr-'t* - t * ‘ -- ~ L -- 

orlftciam m ienre taafiJlm ^a ^Pad Sacfigara 
majm-tJotam u aaam t & a amJmaaaar»*Qr 
mamartmabtta 4 txrrampabam*»paiaampr+ 

Denar rt*- 
SmmArv rm- 

Vtrraapaadooafmat rjSS m* aafitf A hw wt. 




ff yamptTtrm / aarfiactmdtaa 7 »rS r arwaipm» 
tafiu talmariampmt, axfaampcmJwaSar* 
t.t. mamlaamtfiaam fimalcam eamraga anrnaaL 

a,m, f~ pa a . KT --| *.- ,i, /: —r f fitm 

X 4 > Saja, a-urmu x, z. faarmmwmay. 

£ i^i'alLmpaaamiaeaa.fiamftmJhalatrnSm 

* —-- imdeaam pramt r - u —rr aatam 

taaara iMnu mmX Sk aS axtaraa pamdatiagnLaai. 
$*p HtcaSarSema frap agaa aa JUfvat^m* akaxd 

» ao’Loarat 

A la 
$ la 

' aiamsfit 

f Extariori*^ 

• ExurtoTH tmfdam aJ/meat iAtdama $ ip* 
S. fiat part peftawrat ad aedputmm axernmas ma> 



t ad tarn pat (j aarvcaa* a adfacamay 
«. A aifatamdamdot* mamSram*fimma. 
m i taro dmipfau ramimdtoamar, fmarmmakar 
par aAaam capitM at eataar am pant, aim par 
jacwmdi part* aa t aor am caraSrt /batata. 

__ 4 h factfalfiaaanai chataArti ta daxtrrp* 

mmmar ta a ara japaralu anart* fmam taArt* 

_ _ dt^aa Sac a artama pom mam tadaemcad 

aanaai ptaaaaam, poAfaam raaaamaJadfaCt, 
tarn axtaraa iagalait adfScw*, O **Kmpat,(j 

Praopaafipocal*farm par primmuja fi am n 

Varfat narmm ampitadaf exp at y*A at aamaL 
i m dexxram laami daraarnmlrama ax- 

t,r FLamfoparahtpratipai, faiplaxmar mra U’ 
ramafarman parparam crmmmr. 
a ILmaatacalot patamt. 
p t L am at umtm adamt mm x Si mm exrei n Safi 



Saxtipatk aaraar xm airtSri daxtarmirmu.iL 


t*0 JJwrr mwiwf -,—. 
i 8 eta pan t marmara m crralritTWKmfia^hrr* 

M ILaearramsaamaifaiArr. 

I yVmwW cordrt Ltfm actrdaaj. 

4 “Pajf m a ra camrtH O attipmamadant arm. 

§ SeapaLapoArhora patent ana. Yemm <j/i 

paAbat trtrrunpnaatm mamfigmamac - - 

axpartgatar. ^ 

€ %j 4 demamfaaf» 
y H ma r a na faa cmrmfaiu.t 

• Haaaerai% 


/ Magna artrrUtaadtX. 

g Maga* art ana rrxmatfarm earmfimaat 


S 8 apart or 11 neta wgna artatia traati pane, 

fimAro l ratfaa poof imam a S L ta . 
i DiAt mmdarrmn rafigaatrpama.atfmadtaip 
fiat rndaot impartt rmaat iAnimta, frnmm 
A. akarfinAraafiJaparabt A natata gramdroraa 
/• ri daxtram fimat faparaim 1 1 

tetim paaifm* 
m »am,a ■ 

a,a Haeaxtammfipai tr a af werfimtvd 

tammimfigara eaiJLa emat mdkxmpnfifd 
marfirmatar, P mfigmtar- 
a Vena pari Afittmatnkmmjp/iuwtri fi rmtim 

pra fiieii figure targarfi caa&icne. 
p Came mtugalo Lpartata.oc atvm na ad p lata* 

rtrxamt apparent aenarem peAaeu afiiprm adamlaUri afaat rtgtamamrmrren 
a . om HenMehrre fatal cam c a rn age fit ant , 
g tie • tafigita,im ane Ltart f aotetmr. 
r Vana feparior eltjaot taAavam manage 4 * 

ff Traacat mako Up teat, C 7 ' , par cairn fit ram m calttS taademt. 
g D*A trend renat rmAeax perrtA a t , ofan 
odet poAei .imda & made a r i e t ta t. 

| Keiwnaidhm ram m t am r amtaa ei tfrlalt t , 
i tftdmt 




m eniculan dtatfio. 

L^d~X lU**M • 

CommaaeanamAer Y imfia.atfm dm if 
fiat far extarnam meantJidtmJanet. 

0 Samdat 

drm,&In alipt c 

P l^AxdiarMremataAmrxporerAmt ,meritf ta 

nmemdJfrcJai.aj fao extrema i 
mtrarra ream ceaent,alt • pefm 

mpleeathm . 

r YmUset pertro. 

fff yana alamAleofn hear txporreAa. 

$ Meatat arimam foetal imerficamAmip/nuSm 
ao/aeram CT tadmmmdafirtnt. 
nerurform fr ea k ang. 
x yefica crrwx- 

y ytfica erratcH aeafcalet 
M Sapariat aaatrictdt onficiam, am garner hat a 
largo egglattaeurfigare etmname/n .eifae He 
mem mount mane (y arterie fo rma mmbidm 
nfietam faa cin ge at - 

Stouack rmuam eai tonfilU adlac affttmeur 
I afitiaj fiomack ad dtxtrmm letat, tpftg pacat 

/V armor am fexd patH adjtamerkam ferial- 
Yana (7 arm anaria (j nermat el tiedori orifi• 
eto aantricah eJ tafia mi ax cama ae t - Yeram 
a aaraatiSeucar aLtns.ia atom earn 


f lafirmi atatncaL onfidmatj dmdrm tmeAb 

a,a Yana & arcane lac el JUdcdaAe, faa lea* 

caao mfrnmtur- 

t.t Yaft drxtram ftdrtafieadi aantricaL SaplcStat. 
t.t Yaft fimfiram feitmfaadt artarricah iauxta a U * 
O’ fmprrum mtrmlrrama omewp, m tj aaptr dt&a 
maja, fiertalot dt p r om a m ta- 

* Mafcalas raAantatafitaa orltcwlmim emit ft. 
U MafiaS radhoamufimampaft tgtfiiaaemfaf* 


* Sadat me eolam mafiamm ridb eaadaaemr, 
tdeomeraatlmn m ad * rtAamtfi m- 

1 etdenx* 

Jecom bg ta atm e m , fee fnaAra ip fiat pari fept 






e. t.t Oamet lAi eafia&a* ddfin aalmt, tmajbd& 

team ttnfintar. 

f, a uf a a fame ad / daedeni imeAhdmtaime efi 

p Glamina 

t,i Mtatatldkatfiadatmafimjafims. 

» Yena porta ceadrx. 

a I aeon mfirte arrerte^y i 


Bd* mafic at meleatantrle&i 
Yeaa LU aeficaleem adteaett- 
Yana (yarn arrant paAemrtm mammal fit 
a Yima mard aalmpemmt 

4 Yme, arterie,• 


latianrm repent. Yrramt 
ament letmoj cleraAent affamert,mfame 
atmlmm ttd chareArttg im maal tfferne,plea* 
ijfit oll tii rater . ^ caimf 

** mdtdaa ap pea d ltm o Sra ekalt pnp armt, exd 
flu Ur*i ream p ameada.iBiaalia mfkar,am 
die. O’ Parmtmdgam,Admit&eamiempr* 


I x^d x:tLni ra 

hechtf ft Jem mat Atom dffimfetaa, 

C t^A l mafialot tamtam erteademts. 

4 JLema* puna* IratAf atmtmad taLaiaff* 
xAnttens m dmoi iraacat perttio. 

Motor porta 

i finSm l o ait ir m 






Mi* Serial efi atmere 

p.p eLedix pradpaa artrria mtrjltaapattotk. 

If M mor erttrie prop rid- 
r,r Glendale matrfmtrrtepofne, & neper i 
tot aefoma AdaAai comlor a mtt . 

I Foremanfr(ti treafaarfi Ji ame t kam traajma 

m f 

Megmaarttvia fipeam ptnaraas, 
fit* reams tad ix t i emjrpei partem* 

Came arae ceadrx- 
Yenafinfivt ran* pragma* a 
Yerne & ertme rent orzrre < 

Yenadaxtrim* pragma 
S tm firam man ecttdrns atne cyawmfc 
SmfiraJenmeLtaana ■ 

Drxrrefemmelm etna. 
xA rtertaramfmraelam onus 
a,a Soaflra firmaelu aena O’ entire earngrtfit*- 
t F~dMakemaeajertmer*nr m i>r e n*atX<aa 
rentes. fad pantonao commit maim r. 

Penio etna (j erttrie ufltn edramam.Japa 
rterrm ficadt men fide* patent. 

Comm zoo aena (7 entire frmmeLam, fa*m* 
flat pyramid* tfi-pj aenolat efi i ml a n- r. 


Yet ftnrn e ttjlr m at e nm dtfinat- 
Ohtafai atm finds eagalau* fam watfiomde 
firms mjmoaem moLtstr- 
J-fecfrde/aa '•* atenm errakam tamnetar, 
leaf rrgivnr tpfrni coafifi* orr finem 
«,a Yean err tax. 

» Use aeftca ctrtax m atari m u rm f i oda c a a r 

or defeats. 

f Yefe fan im fi lion * merifiaaljafim (y cmfl* 

ten oaplscaaoe. 

r,r Cerak*atrrtor*toHicJA 
a,r,a Meetat erinam a rmlatdt atficam dedaceaut- 
M Vena C enrrta htmlem* errtrlrMipfiig ofi 
mat* mafeal*, & ald aa aa* Lmil a t riper, 

I Yarn* cam* ©■ arteriefapar atfaevam pan/tia» 

e,t xArtanolafeatJecn efiafiaeemaepetantts, 

4 Sen fin p armeom* dsAa t i m e s dttafio. 

I m anors t rent ddle Anfsom* pr t pag a, amt 
57 toxemia* ofii edarxa patent. 

£ndh ram propegt l ea d s * office&mtro A* 

Part tfi arterie fatal ptealeritfaa* mate at 
wt/ke lexer* a. «at CT Ak fatga ttn meant figae 






Sadr* ftufolokt dsA nftftd eltari a r m n 
mjartar.Ytramhtcaxteiale prmmptiaadm, 

armt. f amd a & aneriefaleAa*AmtA,ft 
fithart etna ertme* amamds cant*. 
Exterior* ream prnpegt .eUmmitatfirtim 



4 Yana & arterie daadtm htrfhao} 

porrtSa, cr tpfit atteafi car pon g tan t a d t fifi fi 

§ Yme cm* eoafnge arterie 4 m ra* fi de * e i iea t 

Mhioritmtnlrea* oeatam. 

V R^adxarterie iaiecor.mmtieatmm, ham & 
tea rtt s o a, l It at fie ale* digrfia. 

Yana can coaiagt ertme faprriat atarncal* 
rificram comma erode taadt* c mgans ,atfath 
armricaLfiguremrr a&e o tcm r mt - 
Yenagy artrria pradpaa* iafinorrt n tsml r a* 

txpomg'VtT i mplcaat. 

Glaadmlofa* corfat infirm* AArslmtemlic 

Infineon a* 

Vtfinmfirsts adlttn*- 

Mi* r xfi elsB* erne Itmia fi i a *a \ finflra* arm 
rtkakfidne edema*. Ytram pntopaa a lad T 

mvfimA 4 

fidm admalrltam afp pempamt. 
m,m Ytaaparfimork Zimina ia at n or e JUt 

digital affttpeAtdfindma, xyAtprogngm a* 
not adtns finales. 

CoxtnAciteaetnoTeptttasJal cmttea r ta. 
Mafcalas * oat* finer*txtnormfih* at 
tapaattt o at ntz r ni - 

Me leal* tat e rarr * fida*finer* ottogemak 

DidCcwmdo etna caogrr(fatcwmta faa per gm 

l* of* foreman fimtr edt 
Mac pradpaa finer ptttnt ameficmdtm fit 
team ot rrfit Attar, 
tjt Propegnut mmfealot pefienorm fin or it fidtm 
octnpeaus.zjcatmints fidttedfiram affm 

Dtatfio in pophtr.etfi* edto rent in em f odm* 
fi ner * capsttlaa Ire proaefccatts dfinlmn. 

Mesor* dAa dmftosm mines arne.txtm 
alta emmed/ammn* off ftdm >wpLcoat- 
Ytaeajantna'faaafaemrdaam oddtama 
tart fitola rxporrtAe .ee near mm fealot letmat. 
Mererit drAe dtsr/loan mmet renal, esatm m* 
tame* oka fade* latrgentmA digtot affm 
merit faktat. 

JR anal drAs tread fare* ad edict* afp pmrmx. 
Propegcgrmadrons tread rarer nafeides tsk* 
ame nor a * fedr*e crapaa o rt ,adpaO* a Jfjnpe* 
note C7 dgrtoi dgtfie. 

Trami g ra n de r n r riaa a* Parr mafewhe p*» 

firnorm oka frdrmfiL aeadcoarri drosfmm re 
past r, (7 inter t ken 57 te/rm padmfikens ,r*» 
maloti gnenmnfinenjadtrmo’smtans- 


Digitized by 

Origira! from 




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ifneMfmtntwmpernewdkuiergempntd p mi 





r i c V r AS uric chart ai t « 
cu »9 alia an pctufarferr am 

CER.EBR.yM tmicwmrcrrxlrdm crrrlnfi ixmitd e* emm im wuimm He 
ddm temmmt fnfiecelmenenmdeummipfimslefiit* tmeffittwmr, mepperf 
rttpfm mAmS cepmtn peAmem fmem mexxme flcJJmt. firrfmm rttrerfmm^ 
•ewlos CetnmmfmemmmJmfp learriuedtmtm ermemm mmputfimfif* 

n rfl recto,fuff ■ crrrt ami temtmm letm clerm&ml edklrrt. 

A.B.C CrrtSn ft mltrro letm lefts ^4 imdeet pertrm ifftmtedmerdffimm 
min prom amLm. mtmmmtlt drntmiUrrm procrfmm uan^M*. B weritrrdri 
p*nm tnfimm*t.*Mpbm ceLeriefmmm fi d tmmrm .fd edtermife mce y fiA a, p* 
gUms cml n p'turem rxdpins npomtarC emttmmexemepeAi 
(M trrt&n fidrm metes. 

D.D CrrrltSmm. 

R -j — rfltiflrftfcBfirffaii 

F Ntresmifory firm An ante. 

C Ntruorun u-fimomm rani 

H TMmic*.,mp*muferim*mrnmstXwbtonJigimr*tm, 

I S rctsnJasr nr nto-nu* frrrlri per, 

K.K M nun TJlix terry petit. 

L Crtfier radix tmy peris. 

// Qturtumfer. 
iV Qmmtt p jni greedier radix. 

O Qm'nr ; * ru irfgmor refix, 


Q^.R. Meerie famti petit tA tit propegirntt. fmn m be t pete* 
tmmtUlxmr femamrm.itle mere per ekedjiL prepnmm. 

* Stxtmmmrtmormm per- 

Srptmum ,-wnw certlriper • rtf lent* mcreertpregrtfimi 
lt< eon dtlmten potent, fmemnut mter.m magma rxpertrnefys 
Imt* cvefrajiffigeri i pafim.fnuapei arret* lore fmpnpofte, 

P trtve *4 mmf.mlos eAmlndoi precipme pereserS eexmrrems. 

DorJJttmcdmSe rx eertht left audio,wtimm. 

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